SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    World Health Organization. Hepatitis C. WHO Fact Sheet 164. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 2000 Available at http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs164/en/print.html (accessed 12 October 2008).
  • 2
    Nguyen MH, Keeffe EB. Prevalence and treatment of hepatitis C virus genotypes 4, 5, and 6. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005; 3 (Suppl. 2): S97101.
  • 3
    Simmonds P. Genetic diversity and evolution of hepatitis C virus – 15 years on. J Gen Virol 2004; 85 (Part 11): 317388.
  • 4
    Egyptian Ministry of Health Annual report, 2007. Available at http://www.mohp.gov.eg/Main.asp (accessed 12 October 2008).
  • 5
    Abdel-Aziz F, Habib M, Mohamed MK, et al. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in a community in the nile delta: population description and HCV prevalence. Hepatology 2000; 32: 1115.
  • 6
    Ray SC, Arthur RR, Carella A, Bukh J, Thomas DL. Genetic epidemiology of hepatitis C virus throughout Egypt. J Infect Dis 2000; 182: 698707.
  • 7
    Angelico M, Renganathan E, Gandin C, et al. Chronic liver disease in the Alexandria governorate, Egypt: contribution of schistosomiasis and hepatitis virus infections. J Hepatol 1997; 26: 23643.
  • 8
    Kamal S, Madwar M, Bianchi L, et al. Clinical, virological and histopathological features: long-term follow-up in patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with S. mansoni. Liver 2000; 20: 2819.
  • 9
    Shobokshi OA, Serebour FE, Skakni L, Al-Saffy YH, Ahdal MN. Hepatitis C genotypes and subtypes in Saudi Arabia. J Med Virol 1999; 58: 448.
  • 10
    Al-Knawy B, Okamoto H, El-Mekki A, et al. Distribution of hepatitis C genotype andco-infection rate with hepatitis G in Saudi Arabia. Hepatol Res 2002; 24: 958.
  • 11
    Abdulkarim AS, Zein NN, Germer JJ, et al. Hepatitis C virus genotypes and hepatitis G virus in hemodialysis patients from Syria: identification of two novel hepatitis C virus subtypes. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1998; 59: 5716.
  • 12
    Shemer-Avni Y, el Astal Z, Kemper O, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection and genotypes in Southern Israel and the Gaza Strip. J Med Virol 1998; 56: 2303.
  • 13
    Bdour S. Hepatitis C virus infection in Jordanian haemodialysis units: serological diagnosis and genotyping. J Med Microbiol 2002; 51: 7004.
  • 14
    Xu L-Z, Larzul D, Delaporte E, Bréchot C, Kremsdorf D. Hepatitis C virus genotype 4 is highly prevalent in central Africa (Gabon). J Gen Virol 1994; 75: 23938.
  • 15
    Ndjomou J, Pybus OG, Matz B. Phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis C virus isolates indicates a unique pattern of endemic infection in Cameroon. J Gen Virol 2003; 84: 233341.
  • 16
    Njouom R, Frost E, Deslandes S, et al. Pépin predominance of hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection and rapid transmission between 1935 and 1965 in the Central African Republic. J Gen Virol 2009; 90 (Part 10): 24526.
  • 17
    Wansbrough-Jones MH, Frimpong E, Cant B, et al. Prevalence and genotype of hepatitis C virus infection in pregnant women and blood donors in Ghana. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1998; 92: 4969.
  • 18
    Simmonds P. Genetic diversity and evolution of hepatitis C virus – 15 years on. J Gen Virol 2004; 85: 317388.
  • 19
    Kamal S, Nasser I. Hepatitis C genotype 4: what we know and what we don't yet know. Hepatology 2008; 47: 137183.
  • 20
    Payan C, Roudot-Thoraval F, Marcellin P, et al. Changing of hepatitis C virus genotype patterns in France at the beginning of the third millennium: the GEMHEP GenoCII Study. J Viral Hepat 2005; 12: 40513.
  • 21
    Nicot F, Legrand-Abravanel F, Sandres-Saune K, et al. Heterogeneity of hepatitis C virus genotype 4 strains circulating in south-western France. J Gen Virol 2005; 86: 10714.
  • 22
    Ansaldi F, Bruzzone B, Salamaso S, et al. Different seroprelavence and molecular epidemiology pattern of hepatitis C virus infection in Italy. J Med Virol 2005; 76: 32732.
  • 23
    Katsoulidou A, Sypsa V, Tassopoulos NC, et al. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Greece: temporal trends in HCV genotype-specific incidence and molecular characterization of genotype 4 isolates. J Viral Hepat 2006; 13: 1927.
  • 24
    Fernandez-Arcas N, Lopez-Siles J, Trapero S, et al. High prevalence of hepatitis C virus subtypes 4c and 4d in Malaga (Spain): phylogenetic and epidemiological analyses. J Med Virol 2006; 78: 142935.
  • 25
    Franco S, Tural C, Clotet B, Martínez MA. Complete nucleotide sequence of genotype 4 hepatitis C viruses isolated from patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Virus Res 2007; 123: 1619.
  • 26
    de Bruijne J, Schinkel J, Prins M Emergence of hepatitis C virus genotype 4 phylogenetic analysis reveals three distinct epidemiological profiles. J Clin Microbiol 2009; 47: 38328.
  • 27
    van de Laar T, Pybus O, Bruisten S, et al. Evidence of a large, international network of HCV transmission in HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Gastroenterology 2009; 136: 160917.
  • 28
    Fried MW, Shiffman ML, Reddy KR, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 97582.
  • 29
    Manns MP, McHutchison JG, Gordon SC, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C: a randomised trial. Lancet 2001; 358: 95865.
  • 30
    Zylberberg H, Chaix ML, Brechot C. Infection with hepatitis C virus genotype 4 is associated with a poor response to interferon-alpha. Ann Intern Med 2000; 132: 8456.
  • 31
    Kamal SM, Madwar MA, Peters T, Fawzy R, Rasenack J. Interferon therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C and schistosomiasis. J Hepatol 2000; 32: 1724.
  • 32
    Koshy A, Madda JP, Marcellin P, et al. Treatment of hepatitis C virus genotype 4-related cirrhosis: ribavirin and interferon combination compared with interferon alone. J Clin Gastroenterol 2002; 35: 825.
  • 33
    Koshy A, Marcellin P, Martinot M, Madda JP. Improved response to ribavirin interferon combination compared with interferon alone in patients with type 4 chronic hepatitis C without cirrhosis. Liver 2000; 20: 3359.
  • 34
    Esmat GH, Abouzied A, Abdel-Hamid M, et al. Results of a randomized clinical trial of genotype-4 infected subjects when treated with standard or pegylated interferon alfa-2b in combination with ribavirin. Hepatology 2003; 38 (Suppl.): 314A5A (abstract).
  • 35
    Shobokshi A, Serebour PE, Skakni L, et al. Combination therapy of peginterferon alfa-2a (40KD) (PEGASYS®) and ribavirin (COPEGUS®) significantly enhance sustained virological and biochemical response rate in chronic hepatitis C genotype 4 patients in Saudi Arabia. Hepatology 2003; 38 (Suppl.): 636A (abstract).
  • 36
    Alfaleh FZ, Hadad Q, Khuroo MS, et al. Peginterferon a-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferon a-2b plus ribavirin for initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C in Saudi patients commonly infected with genotype 4. Liver Int 2004; 24: 56874.
  • 37
    Hasan F, Asker H, Al-Khaldi J, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotype 4. Am J Gastroenterol 2004; 99: 17337.
    Direct Link:
  • 38
    Diago M, Hassanein T, Rodes J, Ackrill AM, Sedarati F. Optimized virologic response in hepatitis C virus genotype 4 with peginterferon-alpha2a and ribavirin. Ann Intern Med 2004; 140: 723.
  • 39
    Khuroo MS, Khuroo MS, Dahab ST. Meta-analysis: a randomized trial of peginterferon plus ribavirin for the initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotype 4. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 20: 9318.
  • 40
    Kamal SM, El Tawil AA, Nakano T, et al. Peginterferon alpha-2b and ribavirin therapy in chronic hepatitis C genotype 4 impact of treatment duration and viral kinetics on sustained virological response. Gut 2005; 54: 85866.
  • 41
    Zayadi A-R, Attia M, Barakat EMF, et al. Response of hepatitis C genotype-4 naive patients to 24 weeks of peg-interferon-a2b/ribavirin or induction-dose interferon-a2b/ribavirin/amantadine: a non-randomized controlled study. Am J Gastroenterol 2005; 100: 244752.
  • 42
    Derbala MF, Al Kaabi SR, El Dweik NZ, et al. Treatment of hepatitis C virus genotype 4 with peginterferon alfa-2a: impact of bilharziasis and fibrosis stage. World J Gastroenterol 2006; 12: 56928.
  • 43
    Poordad F, Reddy KR, Martin P. Rapid virologic response: a new milestone in the management of chronic hepatitis C. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 46: 7884.
  • 44
    Martinot-Peignoux M, Maylin S, Moucari R, et al. Virological Response at 4 weeks predict outcome of Hepatitis C treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Antivir Ther 2009; 14: 50111.
  • 45
    Kamal S, Kamary S, Shardell M, et al. Pegylated interferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin in patients with genotype 4 chronic hepatitis C: the role of rapid and early virologic response. Hepatology 2000; 46: 173240.
  • 46
    Ferenci P, Laferl H, Austrian Hepatitis Study Group et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin for 24 weeks in hepatitis C type 1 and 4 patients with rapid virological response. Gastroenterology 2008; 135: 458.
  • 47
    Rossignol JF, Elfert A, El-Gohary Y, Keeffe EB. Improved virologic response in chronic hepatitis C genotype 4 treated with nitazoxanide, peginterferon, and ribavirin. Gastroenterology 2009; 136: 85662.
  • 48
    Ge D, et al. Genetic variation in IL28B predicts hepatitis C treatment-induced viral clearance. Nature 2009; 461: 399401.
  • 49
    Tanaka Y., et al. Genome-wide association of IL28B with response to pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Nat Genet 2009; 41: 110510.
  • 50
    Suppiah V, et al. IL28B is associated with response to chronic hepatitis C interferon-α and ribavirin therapy. Nat Genet 2009; 41: 11004.
  • 51
    Asselah T, Essioux L, Marcellin P, et al. A chromosome 19 SNP (RS12979860) predicts outcome (EVR/SVR) in HCV patients treated with interferon, independent of pegylation or ribavirin. J Hepatol 2010; 62: A1180.
  • 52
    Roulot D, Bourcier V, Grando V., et al. Observational VHC4 study group Epidemiological characteristics and response to peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment of hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection. J Viral Hepat 2007; 14: 4607.
  • 53
    Elefsiniotis IS, Vezali E, Mihas C, Saroglou G. Predictive value of complete and partial early virological response on sustained virological response rates of genotype-4 chronic hepatitis C patients treated with PEG-interferon plus ribavirin. Intervirology 2009; 52: 24751.
  • 54
    Trapero-Marugan M, Moreno-Monteagudo JA, Garcia-Buey L, et al. Clinical and pathological characteristics and response to combination therapy of genotype 4 chronic hepatitis C patients: experience from a Spanish center. J Chemother 2007; 19: 4237.
  • 55
    Hasan F, Al-Khaldi J, Asker H, et al. Peginterferon alpha-2b plus ribavirin with or without amantadine [] for the treatment of non-responders to standard interferon and ribavirin. Antivir Ther 2004; 9: 499503.
  • 56
    Soriano V, Nunez M, Sanchez-Conde M, et al. Response to interferon-based therapies in HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C due to genotype 4. Antiviral Ther 2005; 10: 16770.
  • 57
    Legrand-Abravanel F, Nicot F, Boulestin A, et al. Pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection. J Med Virol 2005; 77: 669.
  • 58
    Martín-Carbonero L, Puoti M, García-Samaniego J, et al. Response to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin in HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C due to genotype 4. J Viral Hepat 2008; 15: 7105.
  • 59
    Kamal SM, Fouly AE, Kamel RR, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2b therapy in acute hepatitis C: impact of onset of therapy on sustained virologic response. Gastroenterology 2006; 130: 6328.
  • 60
    Kamal SM, Moustafa KN, Chen J, et al. Duration of peginterferon therapy in acute hepatitis C: a randomized trial. Hepatology 2006; 43: 92331.
  • 61
    Kamal SM, Ismail A, Graham CS, et al. Pegylated interferon alpha therapy in acute hepatitis C: relation to hepatitis C virus-specific T cell response kinetics. Hepatology 2004; 39: 172131.
  • 62
    Inati A, Taher A, Ghorra S, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of peginterferon alpha-2a with or without ribavirin in thalassaemia major patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Br J Haematol 2005; 130: 6446.
  • 63
    Kamal S, Fouly A, Mohamed S, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2b therapy with and without ribavirin in patients with thalassemia: a randomized study. Abstract 585 presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of the Liver, 26–30 April 2006, Austria Center, Vienna, Austria.
  • 64
    Kamal S, Ahmed A, Mahmoud S, et al. Pegylated Interferon alfa-2a Plus Ribavirin over Pegylated Interferon alfa-2b plus Ribavirin in Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 4: a randomized trial and quality of life analysis. Liver Int 2010 (in press).
  • 65
    Jessner W, Gschwantler M, Formann E, et al. Very early viral kinetics on interferon treatment in chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection. Antivir Ther 2008; 13: 5819.
  • 66
    Asselah T, Bieche I, Narguet S, et al. Liver gene expression signature to predict response to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin combination therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gut 2008; 57: 51624.
  • 67
    Moucari R, Ripault MP, Martinot-Peignoux M, et al. Insulin resistance and geographical origin: major predictors of liver fibrosis and response to peginterferon and ribavirin in HCV-4. Gut 2009; 58: 16629.