SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Keywords:

  • acute liver failure;
  • ammonia;
  • bioartificial;
  • cerebral herniation;
  • detoxification;
  • encephalopathy;
  • fulminant;
  • glutamine;
  • hepatorenal syndrome;
  • liver support

Abstract

Acute liver failure (ALF) is a dramatic clinical syndrome with high mortality because of cerebral oedema (type A hepatic encephalopathy) and multi-organ failure. With intensive care medicine and emergent liver transplantation being the mainstay of treatment, alternatives to transplantation are increasingly needed. Ammonia has been recognised as a major toxin in patients with ALF. It can be effectively removed by haemodialysis, haemofiltration and artificial liver support (a combination of extracorporeal toxin absorption and haemodialysis). Previous studies of extracorporeal detoxification, however, have either not specifically targeted ammonia or were hampered by poor biocompatibility and obsolete pathophysiological assumptions, ultimately failing to improve the prognosis. Moreover, most patients were treated only late after the emergence of advanced HE and multi-organ failure, while detoxification should prevent these complications. Acute-on-chronic liver failure (AOCLF) occurs in the setting of chronic liver disease and has an equally poor prognosis. Here, the goals of extracorporeal blood detoxification are renal support and haemodynamic stabilisation in order to support recompensation. Patients with AOCLF, unfortunately, are at a risk for treatment-related complications including bleeding, thrombocytopenia, hypotension and acute renal failure, making biocompatibility a critical issue. Peritoneal dialysis could possibly emerge as a more biocompatible way of treating refractory hepatorenal syndrome. This article will critically analyse the pathophysiological concepts and goals of extracorporeal detoxification in acute and chronic liver diseases.