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Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP): a noninvasive method for the detection of hepatic steatosis based on transient elastography

Authors


Correspondence

Dr Robert P. Myers

Liver Unit, University of Calgary

6D22, Teaching, Research and Wellness Building

3280 Hospital Drive N.W.

Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4Z6

Tel: (403) 592-5049

Fax: (403) 592-5090

e-mail: rpmyers@ucalgary.ca

Abstract

Background

Accurate tools for the noninvasive detection of hepatic steatosis are needed. The Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP) specifically targets liver steatosis using a process based on transient elastography.

Methods

Patients with chronic liver disease and body mass index (BMI) ≥28 kg/m2 underwent biopsy and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) with simultaneous CAP determination using the FibroScan® M probe. The performance of the CAP for diagnosing steatosis compared with biopsy was assessed using areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC).

Results

A total of 153 patients were included: 69% were male, median BMI was 32 kg/m2; 47% had nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); and 65% had significant (≥10%) steatosis. The CAP was significantly correlated with the percentage of steatosis (ρ = 0.47) and steatosis grade (ρ = 0.51; both < 0.00005). The median CAP was higher among patients with significant steatosis (317 [IQR 284–339] vs. 250 [227–279] dB/m with <10% steatosis; < 0.0005) and the AUROC for this outcome was 0.81 (95% CI 0.74–0.88). At a cut-off of 283 dB/m, the CAP was 76% sensitive, 79% specific, and had positive and negative predictive values of 87% and 64%, respectively. CAP performance was not influenced by measurement variability, but was higher in patients with mild (F0-F1) fibrosis (AUROC 0.89 vs. 0.72 with F2-F4; = 0.03). The AUROCs of the CAP for ≥5%, >33% and >66% steatosis were 0.79, 0.76 and 0.70, respectively.

Conclusions

The CAP is a promising tool for the noninvasive detection of hepatic steatosis. Advantages of CAP include its ease of measurement, operator-independence and simultaneous availability with LSM for fibrosis assessment.

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