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Summary: The aim of this study was, after induction of labour in women with a previous Caesarean section, to compare the outcome in women with a history of a previous vaginal delivery with women who had never delivered vaginally. A retrospective analysis was performed over a 2-year period, in a Dublin teaching hospital. One hundred and three women who had had 1 previous lower segment Caesarean section had labour induced. Particular attention was given to delivery outcome, history of a vaginal delivery, cervical effacement at induction, influence of epidural analgesia, indication for induction and incidence of uterine rupture. The repeat Caesarean section rate after induction was 20.4%. Of the 51 women who had never previously delivered vaginally, the repeat section rate was 37.3% compared with only 3.9% of the 52 women who had previously delivered vaginally (p < 0.01). Fourteen women who had never delivered vaginally had an uneffaced cervix at induction and the repeat Caesarean section rate in this group was 64.3%. The commonest indication for induction was a postdates pregnancy. The use of epidural analgesia was greater in women who had never delivered vaginally. There were 2 cases of uterine scar rupture. Induction of labour following Caesarean section is associated with a significantly higher incidence of repeat Caesarean section in women who have not had a previous vaginal delivery. If the cervix is not effaced at induction, the repeat Caesarean section rate is higher than if the cervix has started to efface.