Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: Is the future getting brighter?


  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1479-828X.2007.00712.x

: Dr Sue Walker, Perinatal Centre, Mercy Hospital for Women, 163 Studley Road, Heidelberg, Vic. 3084, Australia. Email:


The twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) continues to pose a major challenge in the area of fetal therapy. Untreated, the mortality and morbidity are extremely high, and the fact that there are two structurally normal fetuses at risk makes the case for effective in utero therapy even more compelling. Advances in therapeutic procedures, in particular the development of selective laser photocoagulation of intertwin vascular anastomoses, have improved outcomes, both in terms of survival and survival free of disability. This review examines the pathophysiology, diagnosis, surveillance, contemporary therapies, expected outcomes and ongoing challenges in TTTS.