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Keywords:

  • estradiol;
  • granulosa cell tumour;
  • inhibin;
  • ovarian neoplasms;
  • sex cord stromal tumour

Granulosa cell tumours are rare, potentially malignant sex cord stromal tumours of the ovary. They are unique in their presentation and histological features. Many of them are hormone-producing and this property helps them to present early unlike other epithelial ovarian cancers. As a result, most of them will be in an early stage at the time of initial diagnosis. The tumour can manifest in young girls as a juvenile form and conservative management with unilateral salpingo-opherectomy may be an option in them as 95% are unilateral. Surgery is the treatment of choice and initial staging laparatomy a determinant recurrence. Advance stage of the tumour, its size (>5 cm), mitotic figures (>10/hpf), nuclear atypia and absence of call-exner bodies are poor prognostic factors. Such tumours are characterised by late recurrences and this necessitates a prolonged follow-up. Tumour markers such as inhibin and estradiol are useful in follow-up. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have very little role in the initial treatment and may be suggested in case of recurrences. With appropriate treatment, a better survival rate can be achieved as against other ovarian malignancies.

Methods used for locating, selecting and synthesising data:  A search of Medline and Cochrane data base for the period from 1999 to 2010 was carried out to include relevant systematic reviews, meta-analysis, randomised controlled and other clinical and rare case reports. The date of the last search was January 2010.