Vitamin D status and its predictive factors in pregnancy in 2 Australian populations
Article first published online: 18 MAY 2011
© 2011 The Authors. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Volume 51, Issue 4, pages 353–359, August 2011
How to Cite
PERAMPALAM, S., GANDA, K., CHOW, K.-A., OPIE, N., HICKMAN, P. E., SHADBOLT, B., HENNESSY, A., GRUNSTEIN, H. and NOLAN, C. J. (2011), Vitamin D status and its predictive factors in pregnancy in 2 Australian populations. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 51: 353–359. doi: 10.1111/j.1479-828X.2011.01313.x
- Issue published online: 15 AUG 2011
- Article first published online: 18 MAY 2011
- Received 29 November 2010; accepted 10 March 2011.
- predictive factors;
- vitamin D deficiency
Background: High prevalence rates of suboptimal vitamin D levels have been observed in women who are not considered ‘at risk’. The effect of behavioural factors such as sun exposure, attire, sunscreen use and vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D levels in pregnancy is unknown.
Aim: To determine prevalence and predictive factors of suboptimal vitamin D levels in 2 antenatal clinics in Australia – Campbelltown, NSW and Canberra, ACT.
Methods: A cross-sectional study of pregnant women was performed with a survey of demographic and behavioural factors and a mid-pregnancy determination of maternal vitamin D levels.
Results: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (≤25 nmol/L) and insufficiency (26–50 nmol/L) was 35% in Canberra (n = 100) and 25.7% in Campbelltown (n = 101). The majority of participants with suboptimal D levels had vitamin D insufficiency. Among the vitamin D-deficient women, 38% were Caucasian. Skin exposure was the main behavioural determinant of vitamin D level in pregnancy in univariate analysis. Using pooled data ethnicity, season, BMI and use of vitamin D supplements were the main predictive factors of suboptimal vitamin D. Vitamin D supplementation at 500 IU/day was inadequate to prevent insufficiency.
Conclusions: Behavioural factors were not as predictive as ethnicity, season and BMI. As most participants had one of the predictive risk factors for suboptimal vitamin D, a case could be made for universal supplementation with a higher dose of vitamin D in pregnancy and continued targeted screening of the women at highest risk of vitamin D deficiency.