• bimodal daily rhythm;
  • circadian clock;
  • locomotor activity;
  • photoperiod;
  • thermoperiod


Locomotor activity rhythm was examined at various temperatures under a 16 h light : 8 h dark photoperiod (LD 16:8) or LD 12:12 using adults of the burying beetle Nicrophorus quadripunctatus. At 20°C, the locomotor activity of the beetles showed a bimodal daily pattern with two peaks around lights on and lights off under both photoperiods. This bimodal activity rhythm persisted under constant darkness; therefore, the activity of adult N. quadripunctatus is controlled by a circadian clock. Adults showed a bimodal activity pattern for temperatures ranging from 15 to 25°C. The evening peak of the daily activity was earlier at lower temperatures. These findings suggest that in the field, N. quadripunctatus shows crepuscular activity, and is active earlier in the afternoon in cooler seasons. In this species, therefore, temperature appears to play an important role in the determination of daily activity patterns.