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Association and description of males, females and larvae of two New Caledonian Xanthochorema species (Trichoptera: Hydrobiosidae) based on mitochondrial 16S and COI sequences


Kjell Arne Johanson, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Entomology Department, Box 50007, SE-104 05 Stockholm, Sweden. Email:


A method for associating larvae, females and males of Trichoptera is demonstrated for New Caledonian Hydrobiosidae species of the genus Xanthochorema, using cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and 16S mitochondrial gene sequences. Two species, X. caledon Kimmins, 1953 and X. celadonSchmid, 1989, previously with unknown larvae and undescribed females, were associated, and males, females and larvae of both species are described. Mitochondrial COI and 16S gene fragments are demonstrated to be useful for association of sexes and life stages of the two species, and distance measures show that the method is likely to also be useful for other species within the genus. The associations are well supported by high bootstrap and jackknife values.