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Keywords:

  • Bracon;
  • insect–bird interaction;
  • Ligustrum vulgare;
  • ornithochory;
  • plant–disperser–parasitoid–host tetrad;
  • Tortricidae;
  • Turdus

Abstract

Adult braconid wasps (Bracon sp.) emerged from the droppings of frugivorous birds (Turdus blackbirds and thrushes) collected in a rural environment in southern Europe. It was thus demonstrated for the first time that an insect parasitoid of a fruit-infesting insect (lepidopteran tortricid) can survive bird ingestion and gut passage inside a seed (privet Ligustrum vulgare), constituting a case of an evolutionary tetrad.