Frugivorous birds dispersing braconid parasitoids via endozoochory
Article first published online: 24 SEP 2008
© 2008 The Entomological Society of Japan
Volume 11, Issue 3, pages 323–326, September 2008
How to Cite
HERNÁNDEZ, Á. and FALCÓ, J. V. (2008), Frugivorous birds dispersing braconid parasitoids via endozoochory. Entomological Science, 11: 323–326. doi: 10.1111/j.1479-8298.2008.00283.x
- Issue published online: 24 SEP 2008
- Article first published online: 24 SEP 2008
- Received 18 March 2008; accepted 15 May 2008.
- insect–bird interaction;
- Ligustrum vulgare;
- plant–disperser–parasitoid–host tetrad;
Adult braconid wasps (Bracon sp.) emerged from the droppings of frugivorous birds (Turdus blackbirds and thrushes) collected in a rural environment in southern Europe. It was thus demonstrated for the first time that an insect parasitoid of a fruit-infesting insect (lepidopteran tortricid) can survive bird ingestion and gut passage inside a seed (privet Ligustrum vulgare), constituting a case of an evolutionary tetrad.