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Frugivorous birds dispersing braconid parasitoids via endozoochory


Ángel Hernández, Department of Agroforestry, University of Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34071 Palencia, Spain. Email:


Adult braconid wasps (Bracon sp.) emerged from the droppings of frugivorous birds (Turdus blackbirds and thrushes) collected in a rural environment in southern Europe. It was thus demonstrated for the first time that an insect parasitoid of a fruit-infesting insect (lepidopteran tortricid) can survive bird ingestion and gut passage inside a seed (privet Ligustrum vulgare), constituting a case of an evolutionary tetrad.