Eight species of the genus Macrosiphum Passerini 1860 (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) are recognized from the Korean Peninsula. A new species, Macrosiphum (Macrosiphum) paektusani n. sp., is described herein for apterous and alate viviparous females on Rosa marretii Lev. (Rosaceae). The taxonomic position of Macrosiphum (Macrosiphum) cornifoliae Shinji 1924, com. rev., is transferred from the genus Sitobion Mordvilko 1914 to its original position. Host plants of the Korean Macrosiphum are reviewed and the identification key to subgenera and species is also presented.