A new species of bucculaticid moth, Bucculatrix hamaboella sp. nov. (Host plant: Hibiscus hamabo, Malvaceae) is described from Wakayama Prefecture, Japan. The feeding habit of the new species is unique in that: (i) the young larva is a leaf miner forming a long red linear mine but in the later instars the larva becomes a stem borer; (ii) later instar larvae undergo double molts within a cocoonet (molting cocoon); and (iii) penultimate and final instars appear on the surface of the leaf as non-feeding stages. The external non-feeding larvae of B. hamaboella undergoing double molts within one cocoonet are considered to be an abbreviated form of the external feeding instars of other bucculatricids typically making first and second cocoonets, undergoing a single molt within each cocoonet. On the basis of morphological characters, this species is related to the species of Sections I and II (Host: Asteraceae) of Braun (1963), rather than to the species of Section VIII (Host: Malvaceae).