Description of a new Dendrocerus species (Hymenoptera: Megaspilidae) hyperparasitic on Stomaphis aphids and additional notes on their primary parasitoid, Protaphidius nawaii (Braconidae), and another hyperparasitoid, Euneura stomaphidis (Pteromalidae)

Authors


Hajimu Takada, 40 Ogura-cho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8264, Japan. Email: sukkui@aol.com

Abstract

A food chain through three trophic levels on certain trees, Stomaphis aphids – a primary parasitoid, Protaphidius nawaii– a hyperparasitoid, Euneura stomaphidis, has been known in Japan. In the course of my survey on the seasonal prevalence of three Stomaphis species and their parasitoids from 1981–2007 in Kyoto, Japan, I found another hyperparasitoid, which I describe here as a new species, Dendrocerus stomaphis. From fragmentary observations, I inferred the life cycles of P. nawaii, E. stomaphidis and D. stomaphis. These three species have different strategies to escape ant aggression: P. nawaii by specific morphological and behavioral adaptation, E. stomaphidis by general anti-predator behavior like quick movement and D. stomaphis by a unique univoltine life cycle with the active phase from late autumn to early winter when the ants are less active.

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