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Keywords:

  • mitochondrial DNA;
  • molecular phylogeny;
  • nuclear DNA;
  • taxonomy

Abstract

We constructed a phylogeny of the ground beetle subgenus Nialoe (s. lat.), genus Pterostichus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) based on two mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I and 16S ribosomal DNA) and one nuclear (28S ribosomal DNA) gene sequences. Thirty-three representative species of the group and three outgroup species were analyzed. The resultant trees (maximum parsimonious, maximum likelihood and Bayesian trees of the combined data of the three gene sequences) indicated that there are two large and three small lineages in the group, some of which were supported by a previous morphology-based phylogeny. In all the analyses, the small lineage composed of two Korean species is sister to the rest of the subgenus, but relationships of other four lineages differed among the analyses and remained unresolved. The implications of the present results are discussed in terms of taxonomy and biogeography of the group.