• developmental zero;
  • egg stage;
  • hatchability;
  • larval stage;
  • survival rate;
  • thermal constant


The effects of temperature on the development and survival of Shijimiaeoides divinus barine were examined in the laboratory in 2008. The eggs and larvae were reared at temperatures of 15, 17.5, 20, 25, 30 and 35°C with a long-day photoperiod of 16 h light : 8 h dark (16L : 8D). The highest hatchability of eggs was 88.0% at 20°C, but hatchability at high temperatures of 30 and 35°C was 30 and 0%, respectively. The lowest and highest survival rates from the first to third instar were 18.8% at 15°C and 76.9% at 20°C. Few deaths were observed after the fourth instar. The shortest developmental periods of the eggs and larvae were 4.0 and 15.8 days at 30°C, and the durations of the egg and larval stages increased significantly as the temperature decreased. The developmental zero and thermal constants were 9.6°C and 82.6 degree–days for the egg stage, and 10.7°C and 306.8 degree–days for the larval stage. The developmental period of the natural population of S. divinus barine in Azumino City, Nagano Prefecture was calculated using the developmental zero, thermal constants and Azumino City temperature data.