In most temperate insects, diapause strategies and voltinism generally exhibit latitudinal clines, supporting the concept that they represent adaptations to climate. In contrast, in the satyrine butterfly Ypthima multistriata Butler, local populations with different voltinism patterns are geographically intermingled, suggesting that life-history traits related to diapause may differ even between geographically and phylogenetically close populations. In this study, we experimentally examined the critical photoperiod for diapause induction and the larval developmental period in two univoltine and two bivoltine populations of Y. multistriata, all of which inhabit virtually the same latitude (34.652–34.750°N). We found that the critical photoperiod for diapause induction was longer in the univoltine populations than in the bivoltine populations. Moreover, the larval period under the long day length treatment was different among populations in both sexes, although significant differences were also detected between populations with the same voltinism. These results indicate that in Y. multistriata, life-history traits related to diapause can not be attributed merely to climatic conditions such as temperature or day length, which depend largely on latitude. Therefore, we suggest that biotic elements, such as leaf toughness, as well as abiotic elements should be taken into account in attempts to explain the enigmatic pattern of geographic variation in the diapause strategies of Y. multistriata.