Despite the intensive use of the Leptopilina genus and its drosophilid hosts as model systems in the study of host–parasitoid interactions, the diversity and distribution of the species occurring in the Asian region remain elusive. Here we report the phylogeny of Japanese Leptopilina species attacking frugivorous drosophilid flies, based on COI, ITS1 and ITS2 sequences. Consistent with molecular data, hybridization experiments and morphological examination, five species were recorded in Japan: Leptopilina heterotoma, L. victoriae and three new species, two occurring in the Ryukyu archipelago, L. ryukyuensis and L. pacifica, and another species, L. japonica, distributed in Honshu and Hokkaido. Leptopilina japonica is further divided into two subspecies, L. j. japonica occurring in Japan, and L. j. formosana occurring in Taiwan. According to these results, we discuss the evolution, speciation and colonization history of Japanese Leptopilina species.