Diversification process of stag beetles belonging to the genus Platycerus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) in Japan based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes


Kôhei Kubota, Laboratory of Forest Zoology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi 1-1-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan. Email: kohei@fr.a.u-tokyo.ac.jp


Molecular phylogenies of the genus Platycerus in Japan were characterized based on the nuclear 28S ribosomal RNA and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genes. These analyses, combined with our previous morphological information, revealed a detailed diversification process of Platycerus in Japan, as well as estimates of their divergence times. Japanese species were monophyletic and were inferred to have diverged to the acuticollis species group and all other species ca 1.69 Mya. The acuticollis species group then appeared to split into P. viridicuprus and a group including P. takakuwai, P. albisomni and P. acuticollis ca 1.26 Mya. Other specific divergences have occurred primarily since ca 0.33 Mya. Comparing the molecular trees and the morphological tree, we also found introgression of the COI gene in some species. Genetic divergence of Platycerus has occurred intensely in southwestern Japan.