SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Althoff DM (2003) Does parasitoid attack strategy influence host specificity? A test with New World braconids. Ecological Entomology 28, 500502.
  • Antolin MF, Strong DR (1987) Long-distance dispersal by a parasitoid (Anagrus delicatus, Mymaridae) and its host. Oecologia 73, 288292.
  • Askew RR (1990) Species diversity of hymenopteran taxa in Sulawesi. In: Knight WJ, Holloway JD (eds) Insects and the Rain Forests of South East Asia (Wallacea), pp 250260. The Royal Entomological Society of London, London.
  • Askew RR, Shaw MR (1986) Parasitoid communities: their size, structure and development. In: Waage J, Greathead D (eds) Insect Parasitoids, pp 225264. Academic Press, London.
  • Baselga A, Lobo JM, Hortal J, Jiménez-Valverde A, Gómez JF (2010) Assessing alpha and beta taxonomy in Eupelmid wasps: determinants of the probability of describing good species and synonyms. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 48, 4049.
  • Belokobylskij SA, Maeto K (2008) Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of Ogasawara Islands (Japan). Annales Zoologici 58, 125166.
  • Belshaw R (1994) Life history characteristics of Tachinidae (Diptera) and their effect on polyphagy. In: Hawkins BA, Sheehan W (eds) Parasitoid Community Ecology, pp 145162. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Belshaw R, Grafen A, Quicke DLJ (2003) Inferring life history from ovipositor morphology in parasitoid wasps using phylogenetic regression and discriminant analysis. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 139, 213228.
  • Bennett DJ (2008) The Ophioninae wasps of Hawaii (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 17, 143.
  • Brown WL (1982) Hymenoptera. In: Parker SP (ed.) Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms, pp 652680. McGraw-Hill, New York.
  • Brown JH, Lomolino MV (1998) Biogeography. Sinauer Associates Inc., Sunderland, MA.
  • Cornell HV, Hawkins BA (1993) Accumulation of native parasitoid species on introduced herbivores: a comparison of hosts as natives and hosts as invaders. American Naturalist 141, 847865.
  • Cronin JT (2004) Host-parasitoid extinction and colonization in a fragmented prairie landscape. Oecologia 139, 503514.
  • Diamond JM (1970) Ecological consequences of island colonization by southwest Pacific birds. I. Types of niche shifts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 67, 529536.
  • Diniz-Filho JAF, De Marco Jr P, Hawkins BA (2010) Defying the curse of ignorance: perspectives in insect macroecology and conservation biogeography. Insect Conservation and Diversity 3, 172179.
  • Dolphin K, Quicke DLJ (2001) Estimating the global species richness of an incompletely described taxon: an example using parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 73, 279286.
  • Eggleton P, Belshaw R (1992) Insect parasitoids: an evolutionary overview. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B 337, 120.
  • Eggleton P, Gaston KJ (1990) “Parasitoid” species and assemblages: convenient definitions or misleading compromises? Oikos 59, 417421.
  • Elzinga JA, van Nouhuys S, van Leeuwen D-J, Biere BA (2007) Distribution and colonisation ability of three parasitoids and their herbivorous host in a fragmented landscape. Basic and Applied Ecology 8, 7588.
  • Feener DH Jr, Brown BV (1997) Diptera as parasitoids. Annual Review of Entomology 42, 7397.
  • Funasaki GY, Lai P-Y, Nakahara LM, Beardsley JW, Ota AK (1988) A review of biological control introductions in Hawaii: 1890 to 1985. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 28, 105160.
  • Gaston KJ (1991) The magnitude of global insect species richness. Conservation Biology 5, 283296.
  • Gaston KJ (1993) Spatial patterns in the description and richness of the Hymenoptera. In: LaSalle J, Gauld ID (eds) Hymenoptera and Biodiversity, pp 277293. CAB International, Wallingford.
  • Gaston KJ (2000) Global patterns in biodiversity. Nature 405, 220227.
  • Gauld ID (1986) Latitudinal gradients in ichneumonid species-richness in Australia. Ecological Entomology 11, 155161.
  • Gauld ID (1987) Some factors affecting the composition of tropical ichneumonoid faunas. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 30, 299312.
  • Gauld ID (1991) The Ichneumonidae of Costa Rica, 1. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 47, 1589.
  • Gauld ID, Bolton B (1988) The Hymenoptera. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Gauld ID, Carter JM (1983) The Ophioninae of the Galápagos Islands (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). Journal of Natural History 17, 145155.
  • Gauld ID, Gaston KJ (1994) The taste of enemy-free space: parasitoids and nasty hosts. In: Hawkins BA Sheehan W (ed.) Parasitoid Community Ecology, pp 279299. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Gauld ID, Gaston KJ, Janzen DH (1992) Plant allelochemicals, tritrophic interactions and the anomalous diversity of tropical parasitoids: the “nasty” host hypothesis. Oikos 65, 353357.
  • Gauld ID, Ward S, Mallet V (2000) The Ichneumonidae of Costa Rica, 3. Introduction and keys to species of the subfamilies Brachycyrtinae, Cremastinae, Labeninae and Oxytorinae, and with an appendix on the Anomaloninae. Memoirs of the American Entomological Institute 63, 1453.
  • Gillespie RG, Roderick GK (2002) Arthropods on islands: colonization, speciation, and conservation. Annual Review of Entomology 47, 595632.
  • Godfray HCJ (1994) Parasitoids: Behavioral and Evolutionary Ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
  • Godfray HCJ, Agassiz DJL, Nash DR, Lawton JH (1995) The recruitment of parasitoid species to two invading herbivores. Journal of Animal Ecology 64, 393402.
  • Gröbler BC, Lewis OT (2008) Response of native parasitoids to a range-expanding host. Ecological Entomology 33, 453463.
  • Gross P (1993) Insect behavioral and morphological defenses against parasitoids. Annual Review of Entomology 38, 251273.
  • Hassell MP (2000a) Host-parasitoid population dynamics. Journal of Animal Ecology 69, 543566.
  • Hassell MP (2000b) The Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Host-Parasitoids Interactions. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Hassell MP, Godfray HCJ (1992) The population biology of insect parasitoids. In: Crawley MJ (ed.) Natural Enemies. The Population Biology of Predators, Parasites and Diseases, pp 265292. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.
  • Hawkins BA (1990) Global patterns of parasitoid assemblage size. Journal of Animal Ecology 59, 5772.
  • Hawkins BA (1994) Pattern and Process in Host-Parasitoid Interactions. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Hawkins BA, Askew RR, Shaw MR (1990) Influences of host feeding-niche and foodplant type on generalist and specialist parasitoids. Ecological Entomology 15, 275280.
  • Hawkins BA, Compton SG (1992) African fig wasp communities: undersaturation and latitudinal gradients in species richness. Journal of Animal Ecology 61, 361372.
  • Hawkins BA, Lawton JH (1987) Species richness for parasitoids of British phytophagous insects. Nature 326, 788790.
  • Hawkins BA, Marino PC (1997) The colonization of native phytophagous insects in North America by exotic parasitoids. Oecologia 112, 556571.
  • Hawkins BA, Porter EE, Diniz-Filho JAF (2003) Productivity and history as predictors of the latitudinal diversity gradient of terrestrial birds. Ecology 84, 16081623.
  • Hawkins BA, Shaw MR, Askew RR (1992) Relations among assemblage size, host specialization, and climatic variability in North-American parasitoid communities. American Naturalist 139, 5879.
  • Hawkins BA, Sheehan W (eds) (1994) Parasitoid Community Ecology. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Hespenheide HA (1979) Are there fewer parasitoids in the tropics? American Naturalist 113, 766769.
  • Hochberg ME, Hawkins BA (1993) Predicting parasitoid species richness. American Naturalist 142, 671693.
  • Hoedjes KM, Kruidhof HM, Huigens ME, Dicke M, Vet LEM, Smid HM (2011) Natural variation in learning rate and memory dynamics in parasitoid wasps: opportunities for converging ecology and neuroscience. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 278, 889897.
  • Holt RD (2010) Toward a trophic island biogeography. Reflections on the interface of island biogeography and food web ecology. In: Losos JB, Ricklefs RR (eds) The Theory of Island Biogeography Revisited, pp 143185. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
  • Holt RD, Lawton JH, Polis GA, Martinez ND (1999) Trophic rank and the species-area relationship. Ecology 80, 14951504.
  • Hortal J, Rodríguez J, Nieto-Díaz M, Lobo JM (2008) Regional and environmental effects on the species richness of mammal assemblages. Journal of Biogeography 35, 12021214.
  • Hrcek J, Miller SE, Quicke DLJ, Smith MA (2011) Molecular detection of trophic links in a complex insect host-parasitoid food web. Molecular Ecology Resources; doi: 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2011.03016.x.
  • Janzen DH (1981) The peak in North American ichneumonid species richness lies between 38 degrees and 42 degrees N. Ecology 62, 532537.
  • Janzen DH, Hallwachs W, Blandin P et al. (2009) Integration of DNA barcoding into an ongoing inventory of complex tropical biodiversity. Molecular Ecology Resources 9, 126.
  • Janzen DH, Pond CM (1975) A comparison, by sweep sampling, of the arthropod fauna of secondary vegetation in Michigan, England and Costa Rica. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 127, 3350.
  • Jervis MA, Heimpel GE, Harvey JA, Kidd NAC (2001) Life-history strategies in parasitoid wasps: a comparative analysis of “ovigeny”. Journal of Animal Ecology 70, 442458.
  • Jones TH, Godfray HCJ, Hassell MP (1996) Relative movement patterns of a tephritid fly and its parasitoid wasps. Oecologia 106, 317324.
  • Jones OR, Purvis A, Baumgart E, Quicke DLJ (2009) Using taxonomic revision data to estimate the geographic and taxonomic distribution of undescribed species richness in the Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea). Insect Conservation and Diversity 2, 204212.
  • Kruess A, Tscharntke T (1994) Habitat fragmentaion, species loss, and biological control. Science 264, 15811584.
  • Kruess A, Tscharntke T (2000) Species richness and parasitism in a fragmented landscape: experiments and field studies with insects on Vicia sepium. Oecologia 122, 129137.
  • Kuris AM (1974) Trophic interactions: similarity of parasitic castrators to parasitoids. Quarterly Review of Biology 49, 129148.
  • Laliberté E, Tylianakis JM (2010) Deforestation homogenizes tropical parasitoid–host networks. Ecology 91, 17401747.
  • LaSalle J, Gauld ID (1991) Parasitic Hymenoptera and the biodiversity crisis. Redia 74, 315334.
  • LaSalle J, Gauld ID (1993) Hymenoptera and Biodiversity. CAB International, Oxford.
  • Letourneau DK, Jedlicka JA, Bothwell SG, Moreno CR (2009) Effects of natural enemy biodiversity on the suppression of arthropod herbivores in terrestrial ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 40, 573592.
  • Lewis OT, Memmott J, Lasalle J, Lyal CHC, Whitefoord C, Godfray HCJ (2002) Structure of a diverse tropical forest insect-parasitoid community. Journal of Animal Ecology 71, 855873.
  • Lobo JM, Castro I, Moreno JC (2001) Spatial and environmental determinants of vascular plant species richness distribution in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 73, 233253.
  • Lomolino MV (2004) Conservation biogeography. In: Lomolino MV, Heaney LR (eds) Frontiers of Biogeography: New Directions in the Geography of Nature, pp 293296. Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA.
  • MacArthur RH, Wilson EO (1967) The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
  • Maetô K, Thornton IWB (1993) A preliminary appraisal of the braconid (Hymenoptera) fauna of the Krakatau Islands, Indonesia, in 1984-1986, with comments on the colonizing abilities of parasitoid modes. Japanese Journal of Entomology 61, 787801.
  • Mayhew PJ, Blackburn TM (1999) Does development mode organize life-history traits in the parasitoid Hymenoptera? Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 906916.
  • Mills NJ (1992) Parasitoid guilds, life-styles, and host ranges in the parasitoid complexes of tortricoid hosts (Lepidoptera, Tortricoidea). Environmental Entomology 21, 230239.
  • Müller CB, Adriaanse ICT, Belshaw R, Godfray HCJ (1999) The structure of an aphid-parasitoid community. Journal of Animal Ecology 68, 346370.
  • Noyes JS (1989) The diversity of Hymenoptera in the tropics with special reference to Parasitica in Sulawesi. Ecological Entomology 14, 197207.
  • Noyes JS (1994) The reliability of published host-parasitoid records: a taxonomist's view. Norwegian Journal of Agricultural Science Supplement 16, 5969.
  • Noyes JS (2003) Universal Chalcidoidea Database. [Cited 7 April 2011]. Available from: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/entomology/chalcidoids.
  • Olesen JM, Valido A (2003) Lizards as pollinators and seed dispersers: an island phenomenon. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18, 177181.
  • Owen DF, Owen J (1974) Species diversity in temperate and tropical Ichneumonidae. Nature 249, 593584.
  • Peck RW, Banko PC, Schwarzfeld M, Euaparadorn M, Brinck KW (2008) Alien dominance of the parasitoid wasp community along an elevation gradient on Hawai'i Island. Biological Invasions 10, 14411455.
  • Peck SB, Heraty J, Landry B, Sinclair BJ (1998) Introduced insect fauna of an oceanic archipelago: the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador. American Entomologist 44, 218237.
  • Piechnik DA, Lawler SP, Martinez ND (2008) Food-web assembly during a classic biogeographic study: species' “trophic breadth” corresponds to colonization order. Oikos 117, 665674.
  • Quicke DLJ (1997) Parasitic Wasps. Chapman and Hall, London.
  • Quicke DLJ, Kruft RA (1995) Latitudinal gradients in North American braconid wasp species richness and biology. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 4, 194203.
  • Rathcke BJ, Price PW (1976) Anomalous diversity of tropical ichneumonid parasitoids: a predation hypothesis. American Naturalist 110, 889893.
  • Ricklefs RE (2008) Disintegration of the ecological community. American Naturalist 172, 741750.
  • Ricklefs R, Bermingham E (2008) The West Indies as a laboratory of biogeography and evolution. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 363, 23932413.
  • Sääksjärvi IE, Haataja S, Neuvonen S et al. (2004) High local species richness of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae; Pimplinae and Rhyssinae) from the lowland rainforest of Peruvian Amazonia. Ecological Entomology 29, 735743.
  • Santos AMC (2010) Ecology and Biogeography of Island Parasitoid Faunas. PhD thesis, Department of Life Sciences, Division of Biology, Imperial College London, London.
  • Santos AMC, Besnard G, Quicke DLJ (2011a) Applying DNA barcoding for the study of geographical variation in host-parasitoid interactions. Molecular Ecology Resources 11, 4659.
  • Santos AMC, Fontaine C, Quicke DLJ, Borges PAV, Hortal J (2011b) Are island and mainland biotas different? Richness and level of generalism in parasitoids of a microlepidopteran in Macaronesia. Oikos 120, 12561262.
  • Santos AMC, Jones OR, Quicke DLJ, Hortal J (2010a) Assessing the reliability of biodiversity databases: identifying evenly inventoried island parasitoid faunas (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) worldwide. Insect Conservation and Diversity 3, 7282.
  • Santos AMC, Quicke DLJ, Borges PAV, Hortal J (2011c) Species pool structure determines the degree of generalism of island paraistoid faunas. Journal of Biogeography 38, 16571667.
  • Santos AMC, Whittaker RJ, Triantis KA et al. (2010b) Are species–area relationships from entire archipelagos congruent with those of their constituent islands? Global Ecology & Biogeography 19, 527540.
  • Sato H (1990) Parasitoid complexes of lepidopteran leaf miners on oaks (Quercus dentata and Quercus mongolica) in Hokkaido, Japan. Ecological Research 5, 18.
  • Schemske DW, Mittelbach GG, Cornell HV, Sobel JM, Roy K (2009) Is there a latitudinal gradient in the importance of biotic interactions? Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 40, 245269.
  • Schlotfeldt BS, Kleindorfer S (2006) Adaptive divergence in the Superb Fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus): a mainland versus island comparison of morphology and foraging behaviour. Emu 106, 309319.
  • Schoener TW, Spiller DA, Morrison LW (1995) Variation in the hymenopteran parasitoid fraction on Bahamian islands. Acta Oecologica 16, 103121.
  • Shaw MR (1994) Parasitoid host range. In: Hawkins BA, Sheenan W (eds) Parasitoid Community Ecology, pp 111144. Oxford Univesity Press, New York.
  • Shaw MR (1997) Rearing Parasitic Hymenoptera. The Amateur Entomologists Society, Kent.
  • Sheehan W, Hawkins BA (1991) Attack strategy as an indicator of host range in metopiine and plimpline Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera). Ecological Entomology 16, 129131.
  • Sime KR, Brower AVZ (1998) Explaining the latitudinal gradient anomaly in ichneumonid species richness: evidence from butterflies. Journal of Animal Ecology 67, 387399.
  • Skillen EL, Pickering J, Sharkey MJ (2000) Species richness of the Campopleginae and Ichneumoninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) along a latitudinal gradient in eastern North American old-growth forests. Environmental Entomology 29, 460466.
  • Smith MA, Rodriguez JJ, Whitfield JB et al. (2008) Extreme diversity of tropical parasitoid wasps exposed by iterative integration of natural history, DNA barcoding, morphology, and collections. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105, 12 35912 364.
  • Smith MA, Wood DM, Janzen DH, Hallwachs W, Hebert PDN (2007) DNA barcodes affirm that 16 species of apparently generalist tropical parasitoid flies (Diptera, Tachinidae) are not all generalists. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104, 49674972.
  • Stireman JO III, Dyer LA, Janzen DH et al. (2005) Climatic unpredictability and parasitism of caterpillars: implications of global warming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102, 17 38417 387.
  • Stireman JO III, O'Hara JE, Wood DM (2006) Tachinidae: evolution, behavior, and ecology. Annual Review of Entomology 51, 525555.
  • Stone GN, Schönrogge K, Crawley MJ, Fraser S (1995) Geographic and between-generation variation in the parasitoid communities associated with an invading gallwasp, Andricus quercuscalicis. Oecologia 104, 207217.
  • Stork NE (1997) Measuring global biodiversity and its decline. In: Reaka-Kudla ML, Wilson DE, Wilson EO (eds) Biodiversity II, pp 4168. Joseph Henry Press, Washington, DC.
  • Tanaka S, Nishida T, Ohsaki N (2007) Sequential rapid adaptation of indigenous parasitoid wasps to the invasive butterfly Pieris brassicae. Evolution 61, 17911802.
  • Tylianakis JM, Tscharntke T, Klein A-M (2006) Diversity, ecosystem function, and stability of parasitoid-host interactions across a tropical habitat gradient. Ecology 87, 30473057.
  • Tylianakis JM, Tscharntke T, Lewis OT (2007) Habitat modification alters the structure of tropical host-parasitoid food webs. Nature 445, 202205.
  • Ulrich W (1999) The numbers of species of Hymenoptera in Europe and assessment of the total number of Hymenoptera in the world. Polish Journal of Ecology 68, 151164.
  • van Nouhuys S, Hanski I (2002) Colonization rates and distances of a host butterfly and two specific parasitoids in a fragmented landscape. Journal of Animal Ecology 71, 639650.
  • van Nouhuys S, Tay WT (2001) Causes and consequences of small population size for a specialist parasitoid wasp. Oecologia 128, 126133.
  • Whittaker RJ, Araújo MB, Jepson P, Ladle RJ, Watson JEM, Willis KJ (2005) Conservation biogeography: assessment and prospect. Diversity and Distributions 11, 323.
  • Whittaker RJ, Fernández-Palacios JM (2007) Island Biogeography: Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Wiens JJ, Donoghue MJ (2004) Historical biogeography, ecology and species richness. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19, 639644.
  • Yu DS, van Achterberg KB, Horstmann KI (2005) World Ichneumonoidea 2004 – Taxonomy, Biology, Morphology and Distribution. [CD-ROM]. Taxapad, Vancouver, Canada.