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Keywords:

  • developmental zero;
  • diapause termination;
  • photoperiod;
  • seasonal adaptation;
  • stationary molt;
  • thermal constant;
  • thermoperiod

Abstract

Overwintering larvae of multivoltine and univoltine populations of Leptalina unicolor were reared under various constant and fluctuating temperatures superimposed on a photoperiod of either 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness (LD 12:12) or LD 15:9. Diapause of the larvae terminated in midwinter (by early February). All the larvae of both populations pupated after two molts without feeding and the head capsule width of the final instar larvae was smaller than that of the penultimate instar ones. The photoperiod did not significantly affect larval development, but long-day conditions (LD 15:9) hastened pupal development. The thermoperiod had a significant effect on the development of the multivoltine population. When multivoltine population larvae were kept under a low fluctuating temperature regime (cryophase/thermophase = 14/20°C), the period until adult eclosion was shorter than that under a constant temperature of 17°C. On the contrary, when larvae were kept under a high fluctuating temperature regime (24/30°C), the period until adult eclosion was longer than that under a constant temperature of 27°C. However, the univoltine population did not show such a reaction to the fluctuating temperature. The durations of final instar larva and pupa of the multivoltine population were shorter than those of the univoltine population. The developmental zeros of penultimate and final instar larvae and pupae of the univoltine population were lower than those of the multivoltine population. The head capsule width of penultimate instar larvae and the forewing length of adults of the univoltine population were larger than those of the multivoltine population for both sexes.