Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Cicadomorpha (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha) inferred from the wing base structure


Kazunori Yoshizawa, Laboratory of Systematic Entomology, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8589, Japan. Email:


The infraorder Cicadomorpha is a monophyletic group of the order Hemiptera, suborder Auchenorrhyncha, and is composed of three superfamilies: Cercopoidea (spittle bugs), Cicadoidea (cicadas) and Membracoidea (leafhoppers and treehoppers). Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies have been highly controversial morphologically and molecularly, but recent molecular phylogenetic analyses provided support for Cercopoidea + Cicadoidea. In this study, we examined morphology of the wing base structure in Cicadomorpha and tested the previous phylogenetic hypotheses using the characters selected from the wing base. As a result, a sister-group relationship between Cicadoidea and Cercopoidea was supported by three synapomorphies (presence of a projection posterior to the anterior notal wing process, presence of a novel notal process anterior to the posterior notal wing process, presence of a novel sclerite between the distal median plate and the base of anal vein). The present study provides the first unambiguous and prominent morphological support for Cicadoidea + Cercopoidea.