Seasonal fluctuations, spatial distribution and natural enemies of Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Iran
Article first published online: 11 JUN 2012
© 2012 The Entomological Society of Japan
Volume 16, Issue 1, pages 17–25, January 2013
How to Cite
Rakhshani, E. and Saeedifar, A. (2013), Seasonal fluctuations, spatial distribution and natural enemies of Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Iran. Entomological Science, 16: 17–25. doi: 10.1111/j.1479-8298.2012.00531.x
- Issue published online: 4 JAN 2013
- Article first published online: 11 JUN 2012
- Received 28 February 2012; accepted 26 April 2012.
- climatic condition;
- Menochilus sexmaculatus;
- population dynamics;
- Tamarixia radiata
Population dynamics of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama was studied in two-week intervals throughout the season on lemon in a citrus orchard in Southern Baluchistan, Iran. Population peaks were observed in March, April and September 2007 to January 2008. Population levels were positively related to the availability of new shoot flushes, which were in turn related to the weekly minimum temperature. Also, the nymph population peaks were observed in three periods (beginning of March, end of August and end of January). Results indicated that moderate climatic conditions coupled with the flushing of citrus trees are two main factors for an increase of the development and activity of nymphs resulting in pest population increase, while extremes of both high and low temperatures, low relative humidity and high rainfall were detrimental. Four coccinellids (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), one syrphid (Diptera: Syrphidae), two parasitoids (Hymenoptera) and two spiders (Araneae) were determined as natural enemies of the psyllid in the studied area.