Biology of Asphondyliini (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)


Correspondence: Makoto Tokuda, Laboratory of System Ecology, Faculty of Agriculture, Saga University, Saga 840-8502, Japan.



The family Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) including about 6100 described species displays diverse feeding habits. The tribe Asphondyliini is a well-circumscribed monophyletic group of Cecidomyiidae and all species are known as gall inducers. Species belonging to this tribe exhibit fascinating ecological traits such as host alternation, polyphagy, extended diapause, induction of dimorphic galls and association with fungal symbionts. For these reasons, biogeographical and phylogenetic studies of Asphondyliini are of interest in elucidating the evolution of these traits, and particularly the processes of host-range expansion, host-plant shift and shifts in gall-bearing organs. In order to facilitate further evolutionary studies of Asphondyliini, I review studies of systematics, biogeography, phylogeny, speciation, cytology, behavior, ecology, physiology, biological interaction and economic importance in this tribe.