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Diversity and host associations of parasitoids attacking mycophagous drosophilids (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in northern and central Japan


Correspondence: Masahito T. Kimura, Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810, Japan.



The diversity and host associations of parasitoids attacking mycophagous drosophilids were studied in Tokyo (a warm-temperate region) and Sapporo (a cool-temperate region) in Japan. Field collections were carried out using traps baited with mushrooms in May, June, September and October 2009 in Tokyo and in July and August 2010 in Sapporo. The major drosophilid species that emerged from mushroom baits was Drosophila bizonata in Tokyo and D. orientacea in Sapporo. In total, 13 parasitoid species emerged from drosophilids occurring in mushroom baits, and 11 of them were larval parasitoids belonging to Braconidae and Figitidae. Among the 11 larval parasitoids, 10 were collected in Tokyo, while only two were collected in Sapporo. It is not known why their diversity differed so much between these two regions. Four of the 11 larval parasitoids have also been recorded from drosophilid larvae occurring in fruit (banana). The use of these two habitats (mushrooms and fruit) by these four species seems to reflect the occurrence (i.e. resource use) of their suitable hosts. On the other hand, most larval parasitoids from Tokyo attacked D. bizonata, and two larval parasitoids from Sapporo attacked D. orientacea, suggesting that the abundance of potential hosts is one of the important factors affecting their host use.