• 1
    Brodaty H, Finkel IS. BPSD Online Education Pack (on-line). 2002. Available from:[Accessed 5 October 2008].
  • 2
    Matsumoto N, Ikeda M, Fukuhara R et al. Caregiver burden associated with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in elderly people in the local community. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2007; 23: 219224.
  • 3
    Friston KJ, Frith CD, Dolan RJ, Frackowiak RSJ, Mazziotta JC. Analyzing Brain Images; Principles and Overview In Human Brain Function. San Diego: Academic Press, 1997.
  • 4
    Takeuchi R, Yonekura Y, Matsuda H, Konishi J. Usefulness of a three-dimensional stereotaxic ROI template on anatomically standardised 99mTc-ECD SPET. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2002; 29: 331341.
  • 5
    Morita Y, Miyoshi K. Special issue: Understanding and therapy of abnormal behavior in dementia. Changes of dementia symptoms and the abnormal behavior. Rounen Seishin Igaku Zasshi 1991; 2: 10731077 (in Japanese).
  • 6
    Shimabukuro J, Awata S, Matsuoka H. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia characteristic of mild Alzheimer patients. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2005; 59: 274279.
  • 7
    Lezak MD, Howieson DB, Loring DW. Behaivior Problems Associated with Prefrontal Damage: Neuropsychological Assessment, 4th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.
  • 8
    Damasio AR, Anderson AW. The Frontal Lobes: Clinical Neuropsychology, 4th edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.
  • 9
    Boldwin RC. Recent understandings in geriatric affective disorder. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2007; 20: 539543.
  • 10
    Heilman KM, Blonder LX, Bowers D, Crucian GP. Neurological Disorders and Emotional Dysfunction: The Neuropsychology of Emotion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • 11
    Tucker GJ. Seizure disorders presenting with psychiatric symptomatology. Psychiatr Clin North Am 1998; 21: 625635.
  • 12
    Kotrla KJ, Chacko RC, Harper RG, Jhingran S, Doody R. SPECT findings on psychosis in Alzheimer's disease. Am J Psychiatry 1995; 152: 14701475.
  • 13
    McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, Katzman R, Price D, Stadlan EM. Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: Report of the NINCDS-ADRDA Work Group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer's Disease. Neurology 1984; 34: 939944.
  • 14
    Hughes CP, Berg L, Danziger WL et al. A new clinical scale for the staging of dementia. Br J Psychiatry 1982; 140: 566572.
  • 15
    Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR. ‘Mini-Mental Test’: A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatry Res 1975; 12: 189198.
  • 16
    Overall JE, Gorham DR. The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS): Recent developments in ascertainment and scaling. Psychopharmacol Bull 1988; 24: 9799.
  • 17
    Cummings JL, Mega M, Gray K, Rosenberg-Thompson S, Carusi DA, Gornbein J. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory: Comprehensive assessment of psychopathology in dementia. Neurology 1994; 44: 23082314.
  • 18
    Takaki A, Yoshioka K, Teraoka S et al. Improvement in accuracy of quantitative assessment of the regional cerebral blood flow with 99mTc-ECD. Kaku Igaku 2005; 42: 1116 (in Japanese with an English abstract).
  • 19
    Robert PH, Darcourt G, Koulibaly MP et al. Lack of initiative and interest in Alzheimer's disease: A single photon emission computed tomography study. Eur J Neurol 2006; 13: 729735.
  • 20
    Benoit M, Clairet S, Koulibaly PM, Darcourt J, Robert PH. Brain perfusion correlates of the apathy inventory dimensions of Alzheimer's disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2004; 19: 864869.
  • 21
    Lanctot KL, Moosa S, Herrmann N et al. A SPECT study of apathy in Alzheimer's disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2007; 24: 6572.
  • 22
    Marshall GA, Monserratt L, Harwood D, Mandelkern M, Cummings JL, Sultzer DL. Positron emission tomography metabolic correlates of apathy in Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2007; 64: 10151020.
  • 23
    Liao YC, Liu RS, Lee YC et al. Selective hypoperfusion of anterior cingulate gyrus in depressed AD patients: A brain SPECT finding by statistical parametric mapping. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2003; 16: 238244.
  • 24
    Wragg RE, Jeste DV. Overview of depression and psychosis in Alzheimer's disease. Am J Psychiatry 1989; 146: 577587.
  • 25
    Bench CJ, Frackowiak RS, Dolan RJ. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow on recovery from depression. Psychol Med 1995; 25: 247261.
  • 26
    Kobayashi S, Tateno M, Utsumi K et al. Quantitative analysis of brain perfusion SPECT in Alzheimer's disease using a fully automated regional cerebral bloodflow quantification software, 3DSRT. J Neurol Sci 2008; 264: 2733.
  • 27
    Tanaka H, Maeshima S, Shigekawa Y et al. Neuropsychological impairment and decreased regional cerebral blood flow by interferon treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis: A preliminary study. Clin Exp Med 2006; 6: 124128.