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Keywords:

  • advanced sleep phase disorder (ASPD);
  • circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD);
  • delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD);
  • melatonin

Abstract

The primary symptom of circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSDs) is the inability to sleep during the desired sleep time. CRSDs are divided into two broad classes: (i) disorders not related to forced alterations of the sleep–wake schedule or light–dark cycle (including advanced sleep phase disorder [ASPD], delayed sleep phase disorder [DSPD], non-entrained type [NET], and irregular sleep–wake rhythm [ISWR]); and (ii) disorders related to forced alterations of the sleep–wake schedule or light–dark cycle (including shift work sleep disorder [SWSD], jet lag disorder [JLD], and CRSDs related to diseases and medications). DSPD and ASPD are the common primary circadian rhythm disorders. We discuss the recent developments in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of CRSDs.