Bromley, R. G. & Surlyk, F.: Borings produced by brachiopod pedicles, fossil and Recent.
Characteristic etching traces are produced in hard calcareous substrates by the pedicles of brachiopods belonging to several groups. It was previously unsuspected that the ability to bore was widespread within the brachiopod phylum. Five species were investigated from the Norwegian Sea: Terebratulina retusa and T. septentrionalis (Terebratulacea), Hemithyris psittacea (Rhynchonellida), and Macandrmia cranium and Dallina septigera (Terebratellacea). Fossil traces with closely similar morphology occur in the Cretaceous and are probably also the work of brachiopods. The most characteristic form is designated Podichnus centrifugalis n. ichnogen., n. ichnosp.