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The production and preservation of trilobite resting and furrowing traces is discussed with special reference to specimens from Upper Cambrian strata in North Walcs, Spain, and Poland. Resting excavations are attributed largely or completely to animal activity, and do not normally rcsult from currcnt scouring. Resting excavations, furrows, and many other trace fossils are formed at the sediment-water interface and not bencath a thin sand layer or by burrowing between beds. The factors which allow the initial production of the traces on the ocean floor muds (e.g. cohesion, shear strength, low pore water pressures) will also favour their preservation during deposition of the casting sand.