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Tubiform fossils conventionally referred to Serpula cf. advena Salter and species of Spirorbis Lamarck from the British Lower Limestone Shales and Border Group (Lower Carboniferous) are re-examined. They occur in peritidal carbonate environments of schizohaline aspect. These fossils superficially resemble calcareous polychaete tubes but have skeletal characters, including molluscan wall structure, numerous internal septa, and protoconch, which indicate that they represent a new group of substrate-attached, disjunctly coiled gastropods. They resemble archaeogastropods in internal morphology of the skeleton but show parallels in external form and occurrence with the extant Vermetidae. There are two principal modes of occurrence: (1) erect tubes forming intertidal biostromes associated with non-skeletal algal laminites, and (2) prostrate discoidal tubes encrusting subtidal skeletal stromatolites or occasionally forming larger irregular bioherms. These biostromes and bioherms are comparable in structure to Recent vermetid reef developments.