• Foraminifera;
  • Polymorphinidae;
  • Bryozoa;
  • Upper Cretaceous;
  • Paleocene

In the Upper Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary sections exposed in the Curfs quarries at Berg (munic. Berg en Terblijt - also known as Geulhem, southern Netherlands) and some other localities, numerous foraminifers of the family Polymorphinidae with complete fistulose apertures have been found. These apertures, which are equipped with circular openings and auxiliary apertural chambers, branching and numerous narrow projecting tubes or stolons, have been widely reported, but their role has been the subject of controversy. The Dutch material shows the foraminifers attached with the apertural tubes to fragments of bryozoan colonies or molluscan shells, suggesting that the tubes could perhaps act as holdfast organs. Most specimens were found in calcarenites of the nearshore facies. The foraminifers cannot be treated as symbiotic organisms nor parasites but as epifauna in search of protection from mechanical destruction by waves and current action. The present case may be best explained as an adaptation of sessile foraminifers with fragile hyaline tests to live in highly disadvantageous, high-energy conditions.