• Conodonta;
  • natural assemblages;
  • Silurian;
  • Panderodontidae;
  • Podolia;
  • Ukraine

A cluster of thirteen elements of Panderodus unicosfatus (Branson & Mehl) from the Llandoverian of Po-dolia, Ukraine, is shown to represent an almost complete apparatus; only one element is lacking. The restored original arrangement of the elements is consistent with the model of the conodont apparatus with seven pairs of elements ordered in two parallel rows, with cusps opposing in every pair. The apparatus of Panderodus is closely similar to that of the Cambrian ‘protoconcdonts’ and their Recent chaetognath successors. Nevertheless, general trends in the evolution of elements of the Panderodontidae towards increased elongation, smoothness of the cusp curvature, and depth of the basal cavity indicate that the grasping apparatus of Panderodus developed independently of, and convergently to, that of the Chaetog-natha.