• Middle Cambrian;
  • Bornholm;
  • Denmark;
  • cystoids;
  • eocrinoids;
  • stylophorans;
  • stem columnals;
  • phosphatization;
  • three-dimensional stereom;
  • articulation

A rich material of echinoderm fragments from two Middle Cambrian stratigraphical levels on Bornholm are preserved due to phosphatization of the original calcitic stereom. Preservation of echinoderms in this way - not previously recorded from the Middle Cambrian - permits detailed analysis of the three-dimensional stereom structure. Identifiable are fragments of stylophorans and eocrinoids. Stem columnals, most likely from eocrinoids, show a wide and advanced morphological variation indicating articulation similar to that of crinoids. The material from the Exsulans Limestone/Kalby marl (Ptychagnostus gibbus Zone) represents stem-bearing cystoids older than Akadocrinus from Bohemia. The Andrarum Limestone (Sole-nopleura brachymetopa Zone) contains echinoderm fragments from a higher stratigraphical level, a level correlatable with that from which the oldest North American stem–bearing cystoid, Eustypocystis, has been recorded.