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Savazzi, Enrico 1989 01 15: Burrowing mechanisms and sculptures in Recent gastropods. Lethaia, Vol. 22, pp. 31–48. Oslo. ISSN 0024–1164.

Burrowing was observed in 32 gastropod species, belonging to 8 families, from Italy and the Philippines. Most species burrow by repeating a three-phase sequence: (1) digging with the foot, (2) dragging the shell forward and downward, and (3) rocking the shell around its longitudinal axis. Minor specific differences in the burrowing dynamics are common, and totally different mechanisms also occur. Burrowing sculptures consisting of terraces or asymmetrical tubercles are observed in the majority of the studied species. Characteristics of the burrowing process explain some cases of apparent divergence of burrowing sculptures from the paradigm. Burrowing sculptures in the Gastropoda should be expected to occur mostly among medium-slender, rather than markedly high-spired, shell morphologies. □Mollusca, Gastropoda, Cerithiidae, Nassariidae, Mitridae, Costellariidae, Conidae, Terebridae, Turridae, Hydro-biidae, shell, sculpture, burrowing, functional morphology, ecology, behaviour, Holocene, Indo-Pacific. Philippines, Mediterranean, Italy.