Wood, Rachel, Reitner, Joachim & West, Ronald R. 1989 01 15: Systematics and phylogenetic implications of the haploslerid stromatoporoid Newellia mira nov. gen. Lethaia, Vol. 22, pp. 85–93. Oslo. ISSN 0024–1164.

The presence of spicules in a Palaeozoic stromatoporoid is here confirmed. Parallelopora mira Newell, 1935 from the Upper Carboniferous of the U.S.A. is redescribed as a calcified haplosclerid sponge with a primary siliceous spicule framework of isodictyally arranged styles, sub-tylostyles and strongyles and a secondary calcareous skeleton of stromatoporoid grade and probable aragonitic original mineralogy. P. mira is placed within a new genus Newellia, and family, the Newellidae. This form is postulated to have possessed large amounts of collagenous organic material which enveloped and bound the spicular framework in place. By the draping outline of the calcareous skeleton around the spicule framework and by analogy with the Recent demosponge genus Vaceletia, the calcareous skeleton is suggested to have formed by the direct mineralization of this collagenous template. Newellia mira nov. gen. is further proposed to constitute a member of a new clack of haplosclerid stromatoporoids, together with Euz-Miella erenoensis (Lower Cretaceous); a clade with some similarity to Recent non-calcified forms, e.g. Adocia. Most notably, the presence of different calcareous skeleton mineralogies and possibly microstructures in these two forms suggests the independent development of a calcareous skeleton at different times within this spicule clade. Demosponges appear to have produced calcareous skeletons independently in many different spicule clades. Calcified demosponges are now known from the Hadro-merida (Lower carboniferous; Upper Cretaceous - Recent), Axinellida (Upper Triassic - Lower Cretaceous; Upper Cretaceous; Recent), Poecilosclerida (Recent) as well as the Haplosclerida (Upper Carboniferous - Lower Cretaceous; Recent).□Upper Carboniferous, stromatoporoid, spicules, haplosclerid demosponges, calcareous skeleton biomineralization, demosponge clades, polyphyly.