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Martin, Jose M., Braga, Juan C. & Rivas, Pascual 1989 07 15: Coral successions in Upper Tortonian reefs in SE Spain. Lethaia, Vol. 22, pp. 271–286. oslo. ISSN 0024–1164,

During the Upper Tortonian (Upper Miocene), the Almanzora river corridor, a small Neogene basin in SE Spain, harboured coral reefs growing in three different environments: in fan deltas, beyond the influence of coarse terrigenous sedimentation; in the abandoned lobes of a delta complex; and on coastal margins. All of these reefs are composed of several successive beds, each of which may be made up mainly of Porites embedded in silt or of an initial Porites level followed by a silt-free Tarbellastraea level on top. Porites may be associated with corallines. This structure is interpreted as being the result of an ecological succession repeated over and over again. A pioneer association consisting mainly of Porites. by colonizing the substrate and continuing to grow through relatively adverse silt-deposition conditions, prepares the ground for Tarbellastraea to take over. A return to the previous conditions halts the growth of the Tarbellastraea colonies and the Porites association once more establishes itself in the silt, or else the renewed rate of deposition is sufficiently heavy to suffocate the whole bioconstruction.*Ecological succession. coral reefs, Tortonian, southeast Spain.