Hinz, I., Kraft, P., Mergl, M. & Müller, K. J. 1990 04 15: The problematic Hadimopanella, Kaimenella, Milaculum and Utahphospha identified as sclerites of Palaeoscolecida. Lefhaia, Vol. 23, pp. 217–221. Oslo. ISSN 024–1164.
Hadimopanella Gedik, 1977, Kaimenella Marss, 1988 and Milaculum Müller, 1973 have been established on the basis of isolated elements of unknown origin. Recently, the latter genus has been tentatively related to the Agnatha (van den Boogaard 1988). By contrast, Bendix-Almgreen & Peel (1988) assigned Hadimopanella to the chordate stock but definitely excluded it from vertebrates. Well-preserved worm-like organisms of Palaeoscolecida Conway Morris & Robison. 1986 are known from the Lower Cambrian to the Lower Ordovician. They have their outer surface covered with a pattern of sequin-like sclerites which evidence the systematic affiliation with the isolated sclerites mentioned above. Based on similar structures on the outer surface, Utahphospha Miiller & Miller, 1976 is considered to belong to the same group. *Early Palaeozoic fossils, Palaeoscolecida, isolated sclerites, phosphatization.