Cretaceous Vascoceras and Jurassic Lytoceras show colour markings and etched surfaces representing original organic membranes between the septa. The main difference between the formation of ammonite and Nautilus chambers involved the continuous secretion of a gelatinous cameral liquid to support the ammonite mantle when it moved forward. The gel containing cyclically secreted membranes. here named pseudosepta, resembled the intra-cameral structures of the cuttlebone in Sepia. Pseudoscpta are attached to the shell wall in pseudosutures (Pseudoloben) which are particularly visible in the saddles of the septal suture and tend to mimic them. Their shape suggests reconstruction of posterior mantle shape during translocation. Drag-bands (Schleppstreifen) are spiral markings formed by the overlapping pseudosepta along the axial traces of the foliole folds. The chamber of ammonites was formed by a locally muscular mantle in a tripartite cycle: (1) the mantle initially remained attached to the saddles of the completed septal suture while muscular tissue within the umbilical lobes was contracted and rapidly reattached to the side of the lateral saddles; (2) the whole mantle subsequently crept forward by secreting a gelatinous matrix which contained telescoped membranes, with an adhesive function on pseudolobc flanks; (3) the mantle almost ceased to move within the sites of future lobules, but expanded and crept on before forming the mural and ‘gutter’ ridges of the septum. □Ammonites, chamber growth, vascoceratids, LYTOCERAS, Nigeria.