A new ecological unit within the well-documented late Ordovician brachiopod Foliomena fauna is defined on the basis of assemblages from Northern Cuizhou and southern Sichuan. Southwest China. The Kassinella-Chrisriania Association, from the lower Ashgill Linhsiang and Chientsaokou formations, is dominated by the eponymous genera together with species of mainly Dedzetina, Sericoidea and Kozlowskites Foliomena is rare or absent. To date, the Foliomena fauna has been documented only from deep-water environments however, the new association apparently occupied shallower depths, probably in lowermost Benthic Assemblage Zone 3 and uppermost Benthic Assemblage Zone 4, presumably at the shallow end of the depth range of the Foliomere fauna. The incursion of the Foliomena fauna into relatively shallow-water environments may have been encouraged by abnormally low oxygen levels and sparse nutrients together with persistent soft substrates across this part of the Yangtze Platform during the early Ashgill. ***Ordovician, Ashgill, China, brachiopods. Foliomena fauna.