Tube structure, ultrastructure and mineralogy support serpulid affinities of the problematic worm fossil ‘Serpula’etalensis from the Lower Jurassic of Germany. The original tube mineralogy of ‘Serpula’etalensis is purely aragonitic and is preserved in Upper Pliensbachian specimens from eastern Germany. ‘Serpula’etalensis represent the earliest record of aragonitic mineralogy for serpulids. The tube is formed of irregularly oriented prismatic crystals that are 3–6 µm in length and 0.5–1.0 µm in diameter. Calcitic specimens of ‘Serpula’etalensis from Upper Sinemurian of southwestern Germany were recrystallized during the diagenesis and lack the original tube ultrastructure.