Reuter, M., Piller, W.E., Harzhauser, M., Kroh, A., Rögl, F. & Ćorić, S. 2010: The Quilon Limestone, Kerala Basin, India: an archive for Miocene Indo-Pacific seagrass beds. Lethaia, Vol. 44, pp. 76–86.
The facies of the fossiliferous Quilon Limestone in SW India is described for the first time in detail at the Padappakkara-type locality. Facies (fossiliferous, micrite-rich, bioturbated sediment with intercalated sand pockets) and faunal composition (epiphytic foraminifers, seagrass feeding Smaragdia gastropods, bioimmuration of celleporiform bryozoan colonies) indicate a seagrass environment. The large discoidal archaiasin foraminifer Pseudotaberina malabarica, in particular, is considered as a proxy for seagrass communities. Recent seagrasses have their centre of generic richness in the Indo-Pacific where they cover wide areas in the tidal and shallow sub-tidal zones. However, their geological record is only fragmentary and their palaeobiogeographic distribution has a big stratigraphical gap in the Miocene Western Indo-Pacific region. The described nannoplankton flora and planktonic foraminifers from the Quilon Formation demonstrate that the deposition of the studied seagrass bed occurred in nannoplankton biozone NN3. This timing suggests formation during the closure of the Tethyan Seaway. The Quilon Limestone is thus an early Western Indo-Pacific seagrass bed and an important step in reconstructing the history of seagrass communities. □Quilon Formation, Pseudotaberina malabarica, seagrass facies, Burdigalian, Indo-Pacific.