Jach, R., Machaniec, E. & Uchman, A. 2011: The trace fossil Nummipera eocenica from the Tatra Mountains, Poland: morphology and palaeoenvironmental implications. Lethaia, Vol. 45, pp. 342–355.

The tubular trace fossil Nummipera eocenicaHölder 1989 occurs in a single stratigraphical horizon in Eocene nummulitic limestones of the Tatra Mountains, Poland. The wall of N. eocenica is built of Discocyclina and Nummulities (larger foraminifera) tests, very rarely of the Ditrupa (Polychaeta) tube fragments, bivalve shell fragments, echinoid spines and coralline algae. Morphotype are distinguished on the basis of wall composition and structure. Morphotype A is dominated by fusiform Discocyclina tests, which were preferentially selected by the trace makers for construction of a well-constructed and resistant wall. Morphotype B contains more robust tests of Nummulites, while morphotype C is dominated by saddle-shaped tests of Discocyclina. Nummipera eocenica was produced during a period of seafloor stabilization caused by a deepening. The succession of the morphotypes B, A reflects diminishing energy and increasing water depth. Probably morphotype C represents even lower energy environment than morphotype A. The trace fossil is interpreted as a domichnion, which wall was constructed for protection. The trace maker can be considered between polychaetes and crustaceans; however, comparisons to the closest recent analogues, the polychaete Diopatra cuprea or alpheid shrimps, are not satisfactory. □Bartonian, burrow, Carpathians, large foraminifera, trace fossils.