• 1
    Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics—2003 Update. Dallas, TX: American Heart Association; 2002.
  • 2
    Taylor SH. Congestive heart failure. Towards a comprehensive treatment. Eur Heart J. 1996;17(suppl B):4356.
  • 3
    Stewart AL, Greenfield S, Hays RD, et al. Functional status and well-being of patients with chronic conditions. Results from the Medical Outcomes Study [published erratum appears in JAMA 1989 Nov 10;262(18):2542]. JAMA. 1989;262:907913.
  • 4
    Sullivan MJ, Hawthorne MH. Nonpharmacologic interventions in the treatment of heart failure. J Cardiovasc Nurs.1996;10:4757.
  • 5
    Benson H, Rosner BA, Marzetta BR, et al. Decreased blood pressure in borderline hypertensive subjects who practiced meditation. J Chronic Dis. 1974;27:163169.
  • 6
    Benson H, Caudill MA. Relaxation techniques for managing hypertension. Primary Cardiol. 1984;10:137144.
  • 7
    Silverberg DS. Non-pharmacological treatment of hypertension. J Hypertens Suppl. 1990;8:S21S26.
  • 8
    Sudsuang R, Chentanez V, Veluvan K. Effect of Buddhist meditation on serum cortisol and total protein levels, blood pressure, pulse rate, lung volume and reaction time. Physiol Behav. 1991;50:543548.
  • 9
    Schneider RH, Staggers F, Alexander CN, et al. A randomized controlled trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans. Hypertension. 1995;26:820827.
  • 10
    Alexander CN, Schneider RH, Staggers F, et al. Trial of stress reduction for hypertension in older African Americans. II. Sex and risk subgroup analysis. Hypertension. 1996;28:228237.
  • 11
    Zamarra JW, Schneider RH, Besseghini I, et al. Usefulness of the transcendental meditation program in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol. 1996;77:867870.
  • 12
    Eppley KR, Abrams AJ, Shear J. Differential effects of relaxation techniques on trait anxiety: a meta-analysis. J Clin Psychol. 1989;45:957974.
  • 13
    Kabat-Zinn J, Massion AO, Kristeller J, et al. Effectiveness of a meditation-based stress reduction program in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 1992;149:936943.
  • 14
    Miller JJ, Fletcher K, Kabat-Zinn J. Three-year follow-up and clinical implications of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction intervention in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 1995;17:192200.
  • 15
    Taylor DN. Effects of a behavioral stress-management program on anxiety, mood, self-esteem, and T-cell count in HIV positive men. Psychol Rep. 1995;76:451457.
  • 16
    Fleischman J. Major health condiions. In: Alison KC, ed. Mind/Body Medicine: Using Your Mind for Better Health. Boston, MA: Harvard Health Publications; 2001:3137.
  • 17
    Benson H. The Relaxation Response. New York, NY: Avon Books; 1975.
  • 18
    Luskin F, Reitz M, Newell K, et al. A controlled pilot study of stress management training of elderly patients with congestive heart failure. Prev Cardiol. 2002;5:168172.
  • 19
    Klaus LMD, Beniaminovitz AMD, Choi LBA, et al. Pilot study of guided imagery use in patients with severe heart failure. Am J Cardiol. 2000;86:101104.
  • 20
    Verhoef MJ, Casebeer AL, Hilsden RJ. Assessing efficacy of complementary medicine: adding qualitative research methods to the “Gold Standard”. J Altern Complement Med. 2002;8:275281.
  • 21
    Vuckovic N. Integrating qualitative methods in randomized controlled trials: the experience of the Oregon Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. J Altern Complement Med. 2002;8:225227.
  • 22
    Chang BH, Hendricks A, Slawsky M, et al. Patient recruitment to a randomized clinical trial of behavioral therapy for chronic heart failure. BMC Med Res Method. In Press.
  • 23
    The Mind and Body Medical Institute Web site. Available at: Accessed November 24, 2003.
  • 24
    Mason J. Guide to Stress Reduction. Berkeley, CA: Celestial Arts; 1997.
  • 25
    Strauss A, Corbin J. Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage; 1990.
  • 26
    Antoni MH, Cruess DG, Cruess S, et al. Cognitive-behavioral stress management intervention effects on anxiety, 24-hr urinary norepinephrine output, and T-cytotoxic/suppressor cells over time among symptomatic HIV-infected gay men. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2000;68:3145.
  • 27
    Cruess DG, Antoni MH, Kumar M, et al. Reductions in salivary cortisol are associated with mood improvement during relaxation training among HIV-seropositive men. J Behav Med.2000;23:107122.
  • 28
    Cruess DG, Antoni MH, Kumar M, et al. Cognitive-behavioral stress management buffers decreases in dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and increases in the cortisol/DHEA-S ratio and reduces mood disturbance and perceived stress among HIV-seropositive men. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1999;24:537549.
  • 29
    Lutgendorf SKP, Antoni MHP, Ironson GMDP, et al. Changes in cognitive coping skills and social support during cognitive behavioral stress management intervention and distress outcomes in symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive gay men. Psychosom Med. 1998;60:204214.
  • 30
    Lutgendorf S, Antoni MH, Schneiderman N, et al. Psychosocial counseling to improve quality of life in HIV infection. Patient Educ Couns. 1994;24:217235.