Changes in non-HDL-C are shown in Table II. As can be seen, random effects modeling resulted in statistically significant exercise-control decreases that were equivalent to a relative decrease of approximately 4% for non-HDL-C. With each study deleted from the model once, results remained statistically significant, ranging from ± SEM, -4.8±1.7 mg/dL (95% CI, -8.1 to -1.5 mg/dL) to ± SEM, -6.1±1.6 (95% CI, -9.2 to -2.9 mg/dL). Examination for potential publication bias resulted in no adjustments for the numbers and outcomes from missing studies. Thus no publication bias was observed. No statistically significant differences were observed for any of the a priori subgroup analyses performed (p>0.05). Simple meta-regression resulted in a statistically significant association between changes in non-HDL-C and the year of publication, with greater reductions associated with a more recent publication year (R2=0.23, p=0.005). Because of this statistically significant association, we also conducted, post hoc, a simple meta-regression test to examine whether an association existed between the year of publication and initial levels of non-HDL-C, however, no statistically significant association was observed (R2=0.02, p=0.50). A statistically significant association was also observed between changes in non-HDL-C and changes in BMI (R2=0.21, p=0.004), with greater reductions in BMI associated with greater reductions in non-HDL-C, however, no relationship was observed between changes in non-HDL-C and initial levels of BMI (R2=0.02, p=0.53). Because of the relationship between changes in non-HDLC and changes in BMI, we also compared, post hoc, changes in BMI when partitioned according to whether or not subjects had decreased their BMI during the study, however, no statistically significant difference between the two groups was found (Qb=1.52, p=0.22). No other statistically significant associations were observed for any of the other variables examined, including baseline levels of non-HDL-C and length of training (p>0.05).
Secondary outcomes are shown in Table II. As can be seen, there was a statistically significant exercise- control decrease of 2% in TC and a trend for an approximately 3% increase in HDL-C. Statistically significant exercise-control increases of approximately 16% were observed for Vo2max mL/kg-1/min-1. In addition, small but statistically significant exercise- control decreases of approximately 2%, 3%, and 5%, were found, respectively, for body weight, BMI, and percentage of fat.