The Obsessive–Compulsive Cocaine Scale (OCCS): A Pilot Study of a New Questionnaire for Assessing Cocaine Craving

Authors

  • Florence Vorspan MD, MSc,

    1. Pôle Addictologie-Toxicologie-Psychiatrie, Hôpital Fernand Widal, AP-HP et Neuropsychopharmacologie des Addictions INSERM U705 CNRS UMR 8206 Université PRES-Sorbonne-Paris-Cité, Paris, France
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  • Laetitia Bellais MSc,

    1. Pôle Addictologie-Toxicologie-Psychiatrie, Hôpital Fernand Widal, AP-HP et Neuropsychopharmacologie des Addictions INSERM U705 CNRS UMR 8206 Université PRES-Sorbonne-Paris-Cité, Paris, France
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  • Lucia Romo PhD,

    1. Université Paris X-Nanterre, Laboratoire de Psychologie Clinique Evaclipsy, Nanterre, France
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  • Vanessa Bloch PharmD, PhD,

    1. Pôle Addictologie-Toxicologie-Psychiatrie, Hôpital Fernand Widal, AP-HP et Neuropsychopharmacologie des Addictions INSERM U705 CNRS UMR 8206 Université PRES-Sorbonne-Paris-Cité, Paris, France
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  • Ramon Neira PhD,

    1. CSAPA EGO, Paris, France
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  • Jean-Pierre Lépine MD

    1. Pôle Addictologie-Toxicologie-Psychiatrie, Hôpital Fernand Widal, AP-HP et Neuropsychopharmacologie des Addictions INSERM U705 CNRS UMR 8206 Université PRES-Sorbonne-Paris-Cité, Paris, France
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Dr. Vorspan, Hôpital Fernand Widal, 200 rue du Fg St Denis, F-75010 Paris, France. E-mail: florence.vorspan@lrb.aphp.fr.

Abstract

This study aimed to develop a scale (Obsessive–Compulsive Cocaine Scale [OCCS]) for measuring cocaine craving based on the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS). We tested the scale on 116 French-speaking cocaine users. The scale was reliable (Cronbach's α= 0.93). It was significantly correlated with a visual analogue scale of craving (r = 0.641, p < .001) and discriminated between cocaine-dependant subjects (score 36 ± 11) and abusers (score 17 ± 9, p < .001). Prospective tests on a sample of 20 subjects showed that the OCCS score changed over 3 weeks of treatment and was significantly correlated with the visual analogue scale of craving (r = 0.492, p = .038). Principal component analysis identified three factors: resistance, intensity, and interference. The OCCS questionnaire could be used to repeatedly assess cocaine craving in prospective studies in cocaine addicts. (Am J Addict 2012;00:1–7)

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