Get access

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in cocaine-dependent adults: A psychiatric comorbidity analysis

Authors

  • Constanza Daigre MS,

    Corresponding author
    1. Outpatient Drug Clinic of Vall d'Hebron Hospital and Barcelona Public Health Agency (ASPB), Barcelona, Spain
    • Servei de Psiquiatria, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, CIBERSAM, Department of Psychiatry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Carlos Roncero PhD,

    1. Servei de Psiquiatria, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, CIBERSAM, Department of Psychiatry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    2. Outpatient Drug Clinic of Vall d'Hebron Hospital and Barcelona Public Health Agency (ASPB), Barcelona, Spain
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Lara Grau-López MD,

    1. Servei de Psiquiatria, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, CIBERSAM, Department of Psychiatry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    2. Outpatient Drug Clinic of Vall d'Hebron Hospital and Barcelona Public Health Agency (ASPB), Barcelona, Spain
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Nieves Martínez-Luna MD,

    1. Servei de Psiquiatria, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, CIBERSAM, Department of Psychiatry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    2. Outpatient Drug Clinic of Vall d'Hebron Hospital and Barcelona Public Health Agency (ASPB), Barcelona, Spain
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Gemma Prat PhD,

    1. Divisió Salut Mental, Althaia, Xarxa assistencial de Manresa, Manresa, Spain
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Sergi Valero PhD,

    1. Servei de Psiquiatria, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, CIBERSAM, Department of Psychiatry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Rosa Tejedor MS,

    1. Divisió Salut Mental, Althaia, Xarxa assistencial de Manresa, Manresa, Spain
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Josep A. Ramos-Quiroga PhD,

    1. Servei de Psiquiatria, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, CIBERSAM, Department of Psychiatry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Miguel Casas PhD

    1. Servei de Psiquiatria, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, CIBERSAM, Department of Psychiatry, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain
    Search for more papers by this author

Address correspondence to Constanza Daigre, Outpatient Drug Clinic, Psychiatry Department, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Passeig de la Vall d'Hebron, 119-129, CP: 08035, Barcelona, Spain. E-mail: cdaigre@vhebron.net.

Abstract

Background and Objectives

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly prevalent among drug abusers. We studied the psychiatric comorbidity and characteristics of cocaine use in relation to the presence of ADHD among patients with cocaine dependence.

Methods

A total of 200 cocaine-dependent patients attending an Outpatient Drug Clinic participated in the study. A systematic evaluation of ADHD (CAADID-II), the severity of addiction (EuropASI) and other axes I and II psychiatric disorders was made (SCID-I and SCID-II). A descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analysis of the data was performed.

Results

In the multivariate analysis, the identified risk factors for the development of ADHD were a history of behavioral disorder in childhood (OR: 3.04), a lifetime history of cannabis dependence in the course of life (OR: 2.68), and age at the start of treatment (OR: 1.08). The bivariate analysis showed ADHD to be associated with other factors such as male gender, age at start of cocaine use and dependence, the amount of cocaine consumed weekly, increased occupational alteration, alcohol consumption, general psychological discomfort, depressive disorder, and antisocial personality disorder.

Conclusions and Scientific Significance

We conclude that ADHD is associated with increased psychiatric comorbidity and greater severity of addiction. (Am J Addict 2013;22:466–473)

Ancillary