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Symptom profile and outcome of delirium associated with alcohol withdrawal syndrome: A study from India

Authors


Address correspondence to Dr. Grover, Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh 160012, India. E-mail: drsandeepg2002@yahoo.com.

Abstract

Aim

To study the profile of delirium associated with alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in a developing country in terms of symptomatology, associated risk factors/physical complications, and outcome.

Methodology

Using a prospective design, 112 patients in whom delirium could be attributed to AWS as either the sole or a contributory cause were assessed by Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 and the associated etiological factors were assessed by using delirium etiology checklist.

Findings

In all patients, delirium was acute in onset and all patients had disturbance of sleep–wake cycle and inattention. Other common symptoms were: disorientation (99.1%), fluctuation in symptoms (97.3%), motor agitation (94.6%), and short-term memory disturbance (92.9%). In terms of delirium etiology checklist etiological categories, besides alcohol withdrawal, the most common factors were metabolic/endocrine abnormalities (76%), followed by organ insufficiency and infection (37% and 35%, respectively). Most patients (67%) improved or recovered completely from delirium during the short stay of 4 days. During the short stay of mean duration of 4 days 13.4% of the patients died during the hospital stay.

Conclusion

Delirium associated with alcohol withdrawal is characterized by an acute onset of symptoms with high prevalence of disturbance of sleep–wake cycle, inattention, disorientation, fluctuation in symptoms, motor agitation, and disturbance in short-term memory. There are certain differences in the symptom profile of delirium associated with alcohol withdrawal and that associated with medical–surgical causes. About one-sixth of the patients developing delirium due to alcohol withdrawal die during the short hospital stay of 4 days. (Am J Addict 2013;22:503–509)

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