Effects of Land Use on Bird Species Richness in Sulawesi, Indonesia

Authors

  • MATTHIAS WALTERT,

    Corresponding author
    1. Centre for Nature Conservation (Department I), Georg-August University Göttingen, Von-Siebold-Strasse 2,37075 Göttingen, Germany
      ‡email mwalter@gwdg.de
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  • ANI MARDIASTUTI,

    1. Department of Forest Resources Conservation, Bogor Agricultural University, P.O.Box 168, Bogor 16001, Indonesia
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  • MICHAEL MÜHLENBERG

    1. Centre for Nature Conservation (Department I), Georg-August University Göttingen, Von-Siebold-Strasse 2,37075 Göttingen, Germany
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‡email mwalter@gwdg.de

Abstract

Abstract: There is still much debate over the potential value of land-use systems for the maintenance of tropical biodiversity. An increasing number of studies indicate that much forest biodiversity can also be found in the agricultural landscape matrix. Because there is little information on the potential value of land-use systems for tropical forest bird species, we conducted repeated point counts in near-primary forest, adjacent young secondary forest, modernized cacao agroforestry systems, and annual cultures at submontane elevations in central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Species richness decreased from natural forest and young secondary forest to agroforestry systems and annual cultures. Although species richness was similar between natural and young secondary forest, the number of endemic bird species was significantly lower in second-growth forest. Species composition gradually changed as the habitat changed from natural to secondary forest, agroforestry systems, and annual cultures. Despite close proximity to near-primary forest, the agroforestry systems studied supported only a few small frugivorous-nectarivorous species. Our results suggest that secondary forest could play an important role in the conservation of many Sulawesi bird species, but, although suitable for colonization, its potential to sustain populations over the long term is unknown. Improvement of the landscape matrix for biodiversity conservation through secondary habitats therefore seems desirable to enlarge the ranges of forest species, but the fight against land conversion within protected areas of the region should be of much higher importance, at least at present.

Abstract

Resumen: Aun hay debate sobre el valor potencial de los sistemas de uso de suelo para el mantenimiento de la biodiversidad tropical. Un creciente número de estudios indica que mucha de la biodiversidad del bosque también se encuentra en la matriz agropecuaria del paisaje. Debido a que hay poca información sobre el valor potencial de los sistemas de uso de suelo para especies de aves de bosque tropical, realizamos conteos por puntos repetidos en bosque casi primario, bosque secundario joven adyacente, sistemas agroforestales modernizados de cacao y cultivos anuales en elevaciones sub-montanas en Sulawesi central, Indonesia. La riqueza de especies decreció del bosque natural y bosque secundario joven a los sistemas agroforestales y cultivos anuales. No obstante la cercanía de bosque casi primario, los sistemas agroforestales estudiados soportaron solo a unas cuantas especies frugívoro-nectarívoras. Nuestros resultados sugieren que el bosque secundario podría jugar un papel importante en la conservación de muchas especies de aves de Sulawesi pero, aunque adecuado para colonización, se desconoce su potencial para sostener poblaciones a largo plazo. Por tanto, parece deseable un mejoramiento de la matriz del paisaje para la conservación de biodiversidad mediante hábitats secundarios para ampliar los rangos de las especies forestales, pero la lucha contra la conversión de suelos dentro de áreas protegidas de la región pudiera ser mucho más importante – por lo menos en el presente.

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