SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

Literature Cited

  • Allen, C. D. 2004. Massive forest dieback. Mountain Climate Sciences Symposium. Lake Tahoe , California . Available from http://www.x-cd.com/mcss04/S01a.pdf (accessed September 2005).
  • Allen, C. D., and D. D. Breshears. 1998. Drought-induced shift of a forest-woodland ecotone: rapid landscape response to climate variation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 95:1483914842.
  • Bailey, J. K., and T. G. Whitham. 2002. Interactions among fire, aspen, and elk affect insect diversity: reversal of a community response. Ecology 83:17011712.
  • Bangert, R. K., R. J. Turek, G. D. Martinsen, G. M. Wimp, J. K. Bailey, and T. G. Whitham. 2005. Benefits of conservation of plant genetic diversity on arthropod diversity. Conservation Biology 19:379390.
  • Bertness, M. D., and R. M. Callaway. 1994. Positive interactions in communities. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 9:191193.
  • Betancourt, J. L. 1987. Paleoecology of pinyon-juniper woodlands: summary. General technical report 215. U.S. Department of Agriculture , Reno , Nevada .
  • Betancourt, J. L., P. S. Martin, and T. R. Van Devender. 1990. Packrat middens: the last 40000 years of biotic change. University of Arizona Press, Tucson , Arizona .
  • Breshares, D. B., et al. 2005. Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102:1514415148.
  • Brown, J. H., T. G. Whitham, S. K. Morgan Ernst, and C. A. Gehring. 2001. Complex species interactions and the dynamics of ecological systems: long-term experiments. Science 293:643650.
  • Busch, D. E., and S. E. Smith. 1995. Mechanisms associated with decline of woody species in riparian ecosystems of the southwestern U.S. Ecological Monographs 65:347370.
  • Callaway, R. M., et al. 2002. Positive interactions among alpine plants increase with stress. Nature 417:844848.
  • Channell, R., and M. V. Lomolino. 2000. Dynamic biogeography and conservation of endangered species. Nature 403:8486.
  • Cobb, N. S., S. Mopper, C. A. Gehring, M. Caouette, K. M. Christensen, and T. G. Whitham. 1997. Increased moth herbivory associated with environmental stress of pinyon pine at local and regional levels. Oecologia 109:389397.
  • Condit, R., S. P. Hubbell, and R. B. Foster. 1996. Changes in tree species abundance in neotropical forests: impact of climate change. Journal of Tropical Ecology 12:231256.
  • Devitt, D. A., A. Sala, K. A. Mace, and S. D. Smith. 1997. The effect of applied water on the water use of saltcedar in a desert riparian environment. Journal of Hydrology 192:233246.
  • Fensham, R. J., and J. E. Holman. 1999. Temporal and spatial patterns in drought-related tree dieback in Australian savanna. Journal of Applied Ecology 36:10351050.
  • Fleischner, T. L. 1994. Ecological costs of livestock grazing in western North America. Conservation Biology 8:629644.
  • Gill, D. E., L. Chao, S. L. Perkins, and J. B. Wolf. 1995. Genetic mosaicism in plants and clonal animals. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 26:423444.
  • Glenn, E., R. Tanner, S. Mendez, T. Kehret, D. Moore, J. Garcia, and C. Valdes. 1998. Growth rates, salt tolerance and water use characteristics of native and invasive riparian plants from the delta of the Colorado River, Mexico. Journal of Arid Environments 40:281294.
  • Gosz, J. R. 1992. Gradient analysis of ecological change in time and space: implications for forest management. Ecological Applications 2:248261.
  • Grand Canyon Trust. 2005. Program index. Grand Canyon Trust, Flagstaff , Arizona . Available from http://www.grandcanyontrust.org/programs (accessed September 2005).
  • Grant, B. R., and P. R. Grant. 1993. Evolution of Darwin's finches caused by a rare climatic event. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 251:111117.
  • Grant, P. R., and B. R. Grant. 2002. Unpredictable evolution in a 30-year study of Darwin's finches. Science 296:707711.
  • Gutschick, V. P., and H. BassiRad. 2003. Extreme events as shaping physiology, ecology, and evolution of plants: toward a unified definition and evaluation of their consequences. New Phytologist 160:2142.
  • Halvorson, W., K. Thomas, and L. Graham. 2001. Arizona Gap Analysis Project vegetation map. Part of the special technical report, the Arizona Gap Project final report. U.S. Geological Survey Sonoran Desert Field Station, University of Arizona , Tucson . Available from http://Pc66.usgs/G/Veg_Prog/azgap/finalcoverages/azgapveg (accessed April 2004).
  • Hewitt, N., and M. Kellman. 2004. Factors influencing tree colonization in fragmented forests: an experimental study of introduced seeds and seedlings. Forest Ecology and Management 191:3959.
  • Horton, J. L., S. C. Hart, and T. E. Kolb. 2003. Physiological condition and water source use of Sonoran desert riparian trees at the Bill Williams River, Arizona, USA. Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies 39:6983.
  • IPCC (International Panel on Climate Change). 2001. Climate change 2001: impacts, adaptation, and vulnerability. IPCC, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge , United Kingdom . Available from http://www.grida.no/climate/ipcc_tar/ (accessed March 2004).
  • Johnsen, T. N., Jr. 1962. One-seed juniper invasion of northern Arizona grasslands. Ecological Monographs 32:187207.
  • Linton, M. J., J. S. Sperry, and D. G. Williams. 1998. Limits to water transport in Juniperus osteosperma and Pinus edulis: implications for drought tolerance and regulation of transpiration. Functional Ecology 12:906911.
  • Loehle, C., and D. LeBlanc. 1996. Model-based assessments of climate change effects on forests: a critical review. Ecological Modelling 90:131.
  • Masek Lopez, S., and A. Springer. 2002. Assessment of human influence on riparian change in the Verde Valley, Arizona. Fulfillment of Arizona Water Protection Fund grant 98–057. Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff .
  • Mitton, J. B., M. C. Grant, and A. M. Yoshino. 1998. Variation in allozymes and stomatal size in pinyon (Pinus edulis, Pinaceae), associated with soil moisture. American Journal of Botany 85:12621265.
  • Moore, R. B., E. W. Wolfe, and G. E. Ulrich. 1974. Geology of the eastern and northern parts of the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona. Pages 465494 in Geology of northern Arizona, guidebook for GSA Rocky Mountain section meeting. Geologic Society of America, Boulder , Colorado .
  • Mopper, S., J. B. Mitton, T. G. Whitham, N. S. Cobb, and K. M. Christensen. 1991. Genetic differentiation and heterozygosity in pinyon pine associated with resistance to herbivory and environmental stress. Evolution 45:989999.
  • Morgenstern, E. K. 1996. Geographic variation in forest trees: genetic basis and application of knowledge in silviculture. UBC Press, Vancouver.
  • Mueller, R. C., C. M. Scudder, M. E. Porter, R. T. Trotter, C. A. Gehring, and T. G. Whitham. 2005. Differential tree mortality in response to severe drought: evidence for long-term vegetation shifts. Journal of Ecology 93:10851093.
  • NEON (National Ecological Observatory Network). 2000. Report on first Workshop on the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON). Archbold Biological Station, Lake Placid , Florida . Available from http://ibrcs.aibs.org/reports/pdf/NEON1_Jan2000.pdf (accessed September 2005).
  • NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2003. U.S. Drought Monitor, National Drought Summary—January 2003. Climate Prediction Center, Camp Springs , Maryland . Available from http://www.drought.unl.edu/dm/archive/2003/drmon0107.htm (accessed March 2004).
  • NRC (National Research Council). 1990. Research strategies for the U.S. global change research program. National Academy Press, Washington , D.C.
  • Nevo, E. 2001. Evolution of genome-phenome diversity under environmental stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 98:62336240.
  • Ogle, K., T. G. Whitham, and N. S. Cobb. 2000. Tree-ring variation in pinyon pine predicts likelihood of death following severe drought. Ecology 81:32373243.
  • Pounds, J. A., and R. Puschendorf. 2004. Ecology: clouded futures. Nature 427:107109.
  • Reily, P. W., and W. C. Johnson. 1982. The effects of altered hydrologic regime on tree growth along the Missouri River in North Dakota. Canadian Journal of Botany 60:24102423.
  • Smith, T. B., S. Kark, C. J. Schneider, and R. K. Wayne. 2001. Biodiversity hotspots and beyond: the need for preserving environmental transitions. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 16:431.
  • Solomon, A. M., and A. P. Kirilenko. 1997. Climate change and terrestrial biomass: what if trees do not migrate? Global Ecology and Biogeography Letters 6:139148.
  • Sperry, J. S., and U. G. Hacke. 2002. Desert shrub relations with respect to soil characteristics and plant functional type. Functional Ecology 16:367378.
  • Suarez, M. L., L. Ghermandi, and T. Kitzberger. 2004. Factors predisposing episodic drought-induced tree mortality in Northofagus—site, climatic sensitivity and growth trends. Journal of Ecology 92:954966.
  • Sullivan III, A. P., and C. E. Downum. 1991. Aridity, activity, and volcanic ash agriculture: a study of short-term prehistoric cultural-ecological dynamics. World Archaeology 22:271287.
  • Swaty, R. L., R. J. Deckert, T. G. Whitham, and C. A. Gehring. 2004. Ectomycorrhizal abundance and community composition shifts with drought: predictions from tree rings. Ecology 85:10721084.
  • Teague, W., S. L. Dowhower, S. G. Whisenant, and E. Flores-Ancira. 2001. Mesquite and grass interference with establishing redberry juniper seedlings. Journal of Range Management 54:680684.
  • Thomas, C. D., et al. 2004. Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 427:145148.
  • Vandersande, M. W., E. P. Glenn, and J. L. Walworth. 2001. Tolerance of five riparian plants from the lower Colorado River to salinity drought and inundation. Journal of Arid Environments 49:147159.
  • West, N. E. 1984. Successional patterns and productivity potentials of pinyon-juniper ecosystems. Pages 13011332 in Developing strategies for range management. Westview, Boulder , Colorado .
  • Whitham, T. G., et al. 2003. Community and ecosystem genetics: a consequence of the extended phenotype. Ecology 84:559573.
  • Wimp, G. M., W. P. Young, S. A. Woolbright, G. D. Martinsen, P. Keim, and T. G. Whitham. 2004. Conserving plant genetic diversity for dependent animal communities. Ecology Letters 7:776780.
  • Young, A., T. Boyle, and T. Brown. 1996. The population genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation for plants. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 11:413418