Striking a Balance between Biodiversity Conservation and Socioeconomic Viability in the Design of Marine Protected Areas

Authors

  • C. J. KLEIN,

    Corresponding author
    1. Centre for Applied Environmental Decision and Analysis, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld 4072, Australia
    2. Donald Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5131, U.S.A.
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  • A. CHAN,

    1. Donald Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5131, U.S.A.
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  • L. KIRCHER,

    1. Centre for Applied Environmental Decision and Analysis, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld 4072, Australia
    2. Donald Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5131, U.S.A.
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  • A. J. CUNDIFF,

    1. USDA Forest Service Cooperative Forestry, Mail Stop 1123, 1400 Independence Avenue SW, Washington, D.C. 20250-1123, U.S.A.
    2. Donald Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5131, U.S.A.
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  • N. GARDNER,

    1. Donald Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5131, U.S.A.
    2. Columbia Land Trust 750 Commercial Street #208, Astoria, OR 97103, U.S.A.
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  • Y. HROVAT,

    1. Donald Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5131, U.S.A.
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  • A. SCHOLZ,

    1. Ecotrust, 721 NW Ninth Avenue, Suite 200, Portland, OR 97209, U.S.A.
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  • B. E. KENDALL,

    1. Donald Bren School of Environmental Science and Management, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-5131, U.S.A.
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  • S. AIRAMÉ

    1. Marine Science Institute, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-6150, U.S.A.
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‡‡ email c.klein@uq.edu.au

Abstract

Abstract: The establishment of marine protected areas is often viewed as a conflict between conservation and fishing. We considered consumptive and nonconsumptive interests of multiple stakeholders (i.e., fishers, scuba divers, conservationists, managers, scientists) in the systematic design of a network of marine protected areas along California's central coast in the context of the Marine Life Protection Act Initiative. With advice from managers, administrators, and scientists, a representative group of stakeholders defined biodiversity conservation and socioeconomic goals that accommodated social needs and conserved marine ecosystems, consistent with legal requirements. To satisfy biodiversity goals, we targeted 11 marine habitats across 5 depth zones, areas of high species diversity, and areas containing species of special status. We minimized adverse socioeconomic impacts by minimizing negative effects on fishers. We included fine-scale fishing data from the recreational and commercial fishing sectors across 24 fisheries. Protected areas designed with consideration of commercial and recreational fisheries reduced potential impact to the fisheries approximately 21% more than protected areas designed without consideration of fishing effort and resulted in a small increase in the total area protected (approximately 3.4%). We incorporated confidential fishing data without revealing the identity of specific fisheries or individual fishing grounds. We sited a portion of the protected areas near land parks, marine laboratories, and scientific monitoring sites to address nonconsumptive socioeconomic goals. Our results show that a stakeholder-driven design process can use systematic conservation-planning methods to successfully produce options for network design that satisfy multiple conservation and socioeconomic objectives.Marine protected areas that incorporate multiple stakeholder interests without compromising biodiversity conservation goals are more likely to protect marine ecosystems.

Abstract

Resumen: El establecimiento de áreas marinas protegidas a menudo es visto como un conflicto entre la conservación y la pesca. Consideramos intereses de consumo y no consumo de múltiples grupos (i.e., pescadores, buceadores, conservacionistas, manejadores, científicos) para el diseño sistemático de una red de áreas marinas protegidas a lo largo de la costa central de California en el contexto del Acta de Iniciativa de la Protección de Vida Marina. Con la asesoría de manejadores, administradores y científicos, un grupo representativo de los interesados definió las metas socioeconómicas y de conservación de la biodiversidad que respondieran a las necesidades sociales y conservaran ecosistemas marinos, en el marco de los requerimientos legales. Para satisfacer las metas de conservación, analizamos 11 hábitats marinos en 5 zonas de profundidad, áreas de lata diversidad de especies y áreas con especies de estatus especial. Minimizamos los impactos socioeconómicos adversos mediante la minimización de los efectos negativos de los pescadores. Incluimos datos de pesca de escala fina aportados por sectores de pescadores comerciales y recreativos en 2 pesquerías. Las áreas protegidas diseñadas considerando pesquerías comerciales y recreativas redujo los impactos potenciales de las pesquerías ∼21% más que en áreas protegidas diseñadas sin considerar el esfuerzo de pesca y resultaron en un pequeño incremento en el área total protegida (∼3.4%). Incorporamos datos confidenciales de pesca sin revelar la identidad de las pesquerías específicas o de los sitios de pesca. Situamos a una porción de las áreas protegidas cercanas a parques terrestres, laboratorios marinos y estaciones de monitoreo científico para abordar las metas socioeconómicas no consumptivas. Nuestros resultados muestran que un proceso de diseño conducido por sectores interesados puede utilizar métodos sistemáticos de planificación de la conservación para producir opciones exitosas de diseño de redes para satisfacer múltiples objetivos de conservación y socioeconómicos. Las áreas marinas protegidas que incorporan intereses de múltiples sectores sin comprometer las metas de conservación de la biodiversidad tienen mayor probabilidad de proteger los ecosistemas marinos.

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